- Choosing a location for the pool
- The sequence of the device of the concrete bowl
- Formwork and reinforcement works
- Concrete works
- Pool bypass option
- Pool decoration
- Pool equipment
A monolithic concrete pool will last for many years in its original form. Use your imagination in its design and you will achieve admirable results. The costs will more than pay off with health and bathing pleasure. We want to tell you how to build a pool with a concrete bowl with your own hands..
Choosing a location for the pool
In a small area, it is difficult to find a favorable place for the pool in all respects. But it is very important to remember that growing trees and bushes nearby can destroy the structure with their roots. A heavily shaded area will prevent the water from heating up during the day from the sun.
It would be nice to place a reservoir near the bathhouse or inside it. A shed or a winter garden will significantly increase its service life throughout the year. It is advisable to take into account the wind rose of the area, and place the long side of the pool along the maximum value of the wind direction.
1. Concrete. For pools, concrete B25 (M350) is used. It is he who has high strength, water resistance (W8), frost resistance (F200) and can withstand heavy loads.
2. Armature. For reinforcement of the bottom and walls of the pool, meshes made of reinforcement O 12 AIII with cells of 200×200 mm are used, for reinforcing the corners – O 14 AIII, structural reinforcement – O 8 AI.
3. Waterproofing. Today we offer a large selection of waterproofing materials for swimming pools:
- high-strength polyethylene films;
- coating compounds (mastics, sealants, bitumen);
- pasting materials (“Brizol”, “Gidrobutil”, “Gidrostekloizol”, etc.);
- membrane waterproofing (PVC, TPO);
- liquid rubber.
4. Thermal insulation: expanded polystyrene, polyethylene foam, polyurethane foam.
5. Decoration materials for swimming pools: glass or ceramic tiles, PVC film, natural stone.
- Concrete mixer.
- Deep vibrator.
- Concrete tool.
- Formwork tool.
- Tools for finishing and waterproofing works.
The sequence of the device of the concrete bowl
Having decided on the location of the pool, it is necessary to mark it on the ground. If the reservoir has geometrically regular shapes, then you can mark it with pegs and twine or cord.
To determine the boundaries of an irregular oval pool, you can use a simple irrigation hose, laying it along the estimated boundary of the future reservoir. This takes into account the size of the formwork and the place for the convenient implementation of external heat and waterproofing. This is approximately 1 meter from the inner edge of the pool. Further along the line, pegs are driven in to secure the border on the ground.
The depth of the pool is determined not only by the conditions of your wishes. If jumping into the water is supposed to be in the pool, then it must be at least 3 meters. For bathing small children, a depth of 50 cm will be quite enough, and the water in such a reservoir warms up faster.
Digging a pit with vertical walls for different soils is possible only at a depth:
- 1 m – in bulk, gravelly and sandy soils;
- 1.25 m – in sandy loam and loam;
- 1.5 m – in clays;
- 2 m – in dense soils.
At a greater depth of the pit, either the walls are strengthened, or the walls are dug with a slope.
Table. Permissible steepness of pit slopes
Priming The angle between the direction of the slope and the horizontal, depending on the depth of the excavation up to 1.5 m from 1.5 to 3 m from 3 to 5 m Bulk natural moisture 76 ° 45 ° 38 ° Sandy and gravelly moist but not saturated 63 ° 45 ° 45 ° Clay of natural moisture: sandy loam 76 ° 56 ° 50 ° loam 90 ° 63 ° 53 ° clay 90 ° 76 ° 63 ° Loess dry 90 ° 63 ° 63 °
In water-saturated soils, the simplest way to remove water is to pump it out. A drainage pit is dug at the bottom, into which a wooden box is installed. Water is periodically pumped out of it.
At the bottom of the pit, it is necessary to make a sandy (10-15 cm), and then a gravel cushion 15-20 cm thick, which are carefully tamped. A cement-sand screed with a thickness of 50 mm is made from above from a solution with a C: P ratio of 1: 6 by volume. A layer of waterproofing and thermal insulation is laid on the frozen screed. The choice of materials is very large today. For the bottom, you can use 2 layers of roofing material. The edges of the waterproofing are folded onto the pool walls by 25 cm.
Thermal insulation is laid out with a thickness of 50-100 mm. The thickness depends on the thermal properties of the insulator. You can use polyethylene foam, polystyrene foam and the like..
Formwork and reinforcement works
The installation of the reinforcement cage is done simultaneously with the formwork device. The main reinforcement cage consists of rods O 12 AIII, laid with a step of 200 mm along and across. The rods are tied together with a steel knitting wire. The bar joint is overlapped. The meshes are connected to the space frame with reinforcement O 8 AI with a pitch of 400 mm. The concrete cover is assumed to be 30 mm. For spatial collaboration, the bottom reinforcement must be connected to the pool wall reinforcement.
At the same stage, the pool equipment is laid (drain, water exchange system, water treatment, embedded parts, etc.). The bottom of the pit is made with a slope of 2–4 cm towards the drain. With a slope of up to 300, the walls of the pool can be made to save water.
The formwork is mainly used from softwood and hardwood, which are not subject to warpage. The thickness of the boards must be at least 19 mm. The formwork is secured with struts and struts to maintain its strength and stability during concreting.
Ideally, the concreting process for the pool bowl is done in one go. But in reality this is difficult to do, so the bottom is concreted first, and then the walls. You can use ready-mixed concrete from the factory. You can make a concrete mixture yourself, based on the following consumption of ingredients per 1 m3 concrete mix:
- cement M400 – 420 kg;
- crushed stone with a particle size of less than 30 mm – 1160 kg;
- sand with impurities of dusty and clay inclusions less than 10% – 524 kg;
- water – 206 l.
Volume ratio C: P: U – 1: 1.05: 2.6 .
A break in concreting work up to 2 hours does not particularly affect the boundary between the old layer and the new one. For a longer break, you need to carry out a number of preparatory work:
- Clean the surface from dirt and cement film.
- Cover with a layer of mortar (10-15 mm), the composition of which corresponds to the composition of the concrete.
Important! It is impossible to water the surface of previously laid concrete and reinforcement with cement milk.
The modern way to avoid trouble at the junction of the old and new concrete layer is to lay a self-expanding hydrophobic cord (2.5–3.5 cm). It is placed on the border of pre-cleaned concrete from dust and dirt. Subsequently, the cord, upon contact with water, increases in volume 6 times, thereby fills all possible cavities in concrete, creating a seam tightness.
The freshly poured mixture must be carefully tamped. For this, deep vibrators are used. This will allow the concrete to reach its required strength..
The removal of the formwork does not take place before the concrete reaches 70% of its strength. To provide the concrete mixture with a normal hardening regime, in hot dry weather it is constantly moistened, and in cold (less than +5 ° C) it is insulated.
After removing the formwork and reaching the concrete strength, it is necessary to treat the surface by thoroughly grouting all cavities and irregularities (leveling layer). Then external insulation of the pool walls and waterproofing is done.
You can use as thermal insulation:
- expanded polystyrene;
- polyethylene foam;
- polyurethane foam;
- “Polispen” and others.
The following types can be used as waterproofing:
- coating (liquid rubber, liquid glass, bitumen);
- penetrating from special formulations;
- pasting (“Stekloizol”, “Stekloelast”);
- membrane (PVC films, TPO, etc.).
An overflow gutter must be made at the top of the pool walls. Its various configurations are shown in the figure. You can simply lay a pipe Ø 100–150 mm in fresh concrete with the desired slope towards the drain, with a length equal to the length of the gutter. Until the concrete has reached sufficient hardness, the pipe is removed.
Backfilling can be done after the concrete has reached 100% strength (28 days). The filled soil must be compacted layer by layer.
Pool bypass option
The bypass path is made at least 40 cm, but on one side it should be wider. Its composition is similar to that of the pool wall. The path is made with a slope of 3-5 ° towards the pool. A drain gutter is arranged between the pool and the path. Water from the walkway should not enter the pool, but drain into the gutter or sewer.
1 – track cover; 2 – external waterproofing; 3 – concrete; 4 – thermal insulation; 5 – internal waterproofing; 6 – gravel
The following requirements are imposed on the finishing materials of the pools:
- moisture resistance;
- resistance to the appearance of microorganisms and mold;
- burnout resistance;
- easy care.
Pool decoration can be made of ceramic or glass tiles. Pool tiles should have minimal water absorption. It is laid on a cement-sand mortar or special glue.
PVC film finishing is an easier and more economical way. For outdoor pools, the service life of such a finish does not exceed 7 years. Docking seams are connected with hot air from a special hair dryer.
Natural stone looks very beautiful when decorating pools, decorated under a natural pond. Marble or granite is often used. Marble behaves quite “capriciously” in operation and requires special care. Granite is more durable and practical. Tiles made of natural stone are laid on a special glue, followed by grouting and sealing the joints.
Pools are equipped with systems of water exchange, cleaning, disinfection, drainage, heating. It is also necessary to provide stairs, ladders for descent into the water. Most of them are installed before concreting the bottom and walls. The market today offers a huge selection. A set of equipment, its location, water removal system, etc., must be foreseen in advance so as not to violate the tightness of the pool bowl.
The reservoir, harmoniously blended into the landscape design of the site, will create a cozy corner of your beloved world, where it is so pleasant to relax, gain strength and be saturated with the beauty of nature.