- The choice of planting material
- Harvesting cuttings for propagation
- Pruning semi-lignified shoots
- Storage of lignified cuttings until spring
- Rooting methods for cuttings
- In the open field
- In greenhouse conditions
- In water
- In pots
- Conditions for keeping rooted shoots
- Rules for planting seedlings in the ground
- Care of young seedlings
- A few tips for grafting roses
Growing roses from cuttings is the easiest way to expand a rose garden in your garden. In this article, we will describe in detail how to choose, prepare and root cuttings correctly, as well as provide practical tips for planting and caring for rose seedlings..
The choice of planting material
The breeding efficiency of roses largely depends on the type of flower. Gardeners and summer residents note that miniature, semi-climbing, climbing, polyanthous and hybrid-polyanthous (climber) groups of plants take root best of all. The probability of their successful “survival” reaches – 90-100%.
Table. Description of well-rooted varieties of roses
Variety name Shrub type Colour Flower size, cm Bush size, cm Susceptibility to diseases and pests Bloom Scent Resistance to external factors Rosarium Uetersen climber deep pink 12 height 250; width 200 practically does not get sick with black spot and powdery mildew re-flowering middle good, flowers do not deteriorate in the rain William morris tall shrub pale pink with peach tint ten height 130; width 90 practically does not get sick with black spot and powdery mildew re-flowering middle some flowers can be spoiled by rain Aspirin rose groundcover, miniature rose white, the center of the flower is pink 8 height 70; width 80 disease resistant constantly blooming weak tolerates rain well Jude the Obscure branchy bush with drooping shoots light peach fourteen height 110; width 105 in unfavorable years it is damaged by powdery mildew and black spot re-flowering strong does not tolerate rains, in rainy weather the flower does not open Decor Arlequin erect tall bush strawberry red ten height up to 200; width 100 under bad weather conditions prone to diseases re-flowering weak flowers do not open in heavy rains Chippendale vigorous bush deep orange eleven height 100; width 100 rarely amenable to disease re-flowering strong flowers may partially fall off after heavy rain
When buying a stalk in a store, you need to choose a green stem with small white roots. It must have at least three green shoots and not germinated “dormant” buds.
Important! On the cuttings, the presence of: dry stems, dark spots under the bark and pink-white weakened shoots is unacceptable.
Harvesting cuttings for propagation
Pruning semi-lignified shoots
Summer semi-lignified shoots are better suited for propagation than cuttings of autumn cut. They manage to take root well before the onset of cold weather and prepare for wintering.
The cut is made during the budding period of the rose, when the base of the stem is just beginning to turn wood. When pruning, a number of rules are followed:
- choose a shoot about 5 mm thick with buds and leaves;
- the cut is taken from the middle of the shoot;
- the flower must be healthy;
- handle length – 10-25 cm.
Important! The cut should be smooth, without torn edges. Therefore, only a well-sharpened knife should be used for work..
From the lower edge, the shoot is cut at an angle of 45 °, retreating from the bud 1 cm.A large number of nutrients are concentrated at this distance, which will contribute to rapid rooting. The leaf plate must be shortened by 1/3 of the length, and the thorns must be removed.
Storage of lignified cuttings until spring
Lignified cuttings are harvested in the fall, during garden pruning. Then they can be planted in open ground (acceptable for areas with a warm climate), rooting indoors or provide them with proper conditions and keep them until spring.
Seedlings can be stored in one of the following ways:
- In a basement or ventilated cellar at a temperature of 1–4 ° C, air humidity – 65%.
- In a refrigerator. Wrap the cuttings in plastic and place on the lower shelf of the refrigerator.
- In the ground. Bury the prepared cuts in the soil (below the level of soil freezing).
Advice!Before placing the cuttings in the refrigerator or basement, their lower ends can be treated with root growth stimulants. Then deepen into peat, cover with a plastic bag and store. Small roots will appear by spring.
Rooting methods for cuttings
In the open field
If grafting occurs in spring or early summer, then the cuts of roses can be planted in open ground. A place protected from direct sunlight is suitable for landing. It is necessary to dig a groove (depth – 15 cm) and fill it with a nutrient mixture of the following composition (proportion):
- sod soil – 4 parts;
- non-acidic peat / humus – 2 parts;
- leaf earth and sand – 1 part each;
- wood ash -? glasses for 10 liters of mixture.
- Fill the trench with a sand-peat composition.
- Spread sand on top (2-3 cm).
- Irrigate the “plantation” with a strong solution of potassium permanganate.
- Plant the cuttings at an angle of 45 °, to a depth of 1.5 cm (sand layer) at a distance of 10-15 cm from each other.
- From metal rods or wooden slats, build a frame over the garden.
- Water the cuttings.
- Pull the film over the frame – you get a mini-greenhouse.
Advice!If a few shoots take root, then each can simply be covered with a glass jar or a cut plastic bottle..
The first 3 days, cuttings need frequent watering (5 times a day – when it’s sunny, 3 times – in cloudy weather). Further, the amount of irrigation is reduced to 1 time per week.
The cuttings are hardened a month after planting. For the first time, remove the film for 2 hours (in calm weather) and increase the hardening time each time.
In greenhouse conditions
In the greenhouse, lignified cuttings that have wintered indoors are usually rooted. A nutrient mixture is poured into the container, the same as for planting in open ground.
Effective rooting is possible under the following conditions:
- temperature – 22-24 ° С;
- high humidity – more than 90%;
Important! The leaves of greenhouse cuttings must be constantly moistened, so planting roses will have to be watered 8-10 times a day. If roses are grown for sale, then sprinkler equipment must be used..
You can reduce watering and remove shading 3 weeks after planting. The cuttings begin to harden – regularly ventilate the greenhouse.
The easiest way to propagate roses is by rooting cuttings in water. It is enough to put cut shoots in a jar of boiled water (temperature 22-25 ° С) and place the container in a shaded place. Water needs to be renewed every other day. After 2 weeks, callus is formed at the ends of the shoot, and after another 5-7 days, root rudiments will appear.
The stalk can be rooted at home. Fill the pot with a sand-peat mixture, plant a shoot and cover it with a jar. The rooting process is in many ways similar to the cultivation of greenhouse rose seedlings. The period of “survival” of cuttings is 2-3 weeks, after this period the plant must be hardened – taken out for airing.
Conditions for keeping rooted shoots
Cuttings rooted in the spring-summer period, it is not advisable to plant in the fall in the garden in a permanent place – at this age, the seedlings still have a weak root system, which is susceptible to excess moisture, temperature fluctuations and even minor frosts. Cuttings need to create optimal conditions for further growth:
- dry cold room (cellar) – temperature 0–5 ° С;
- minimum watering.
If semi-lignified shoots have taken root in the open field, then for the winter they must be covered with spruce branches.
Attention! Often the reason for the death of young plants is not temperature drops, but an excess of moisture in the soil, which is formed after melting snow and heavy spring rains..
Rules for planting seedlings in the ground
In late April – early May, if the air temperature is at least 12 ° C, the plant can be planted in a flower bed. The garden bed must be prepared in advance: dig up and apply fertilizers (for 1 bush – 1.5 kg of compost, 1 tbsp. L. Mineral dressing). It is advisable to add 30 g of ash per bush to light soils..
The seedlings are deepened into the soil, watered and hilled. It is important to choose the optimal distance between seedlings, which largely depends on the variety of roses..
Video: recommendations for grafting roses
Care of young seedlings
Roses of the first year of planting are less whimsical to growing conditions than rooted cuttings. It is enough to perform some simple activities:
- watering – moderate (once a week);
- monthly “fluffing” of the earthen coma;
- in the first summer, remove all the buds from the bush – this will allow the rose to develop normally (the leaves cannot be cut off);
- in July, it is advisable to treat a young seedling with a preparation containing copper – this will protect the plant from diseases and pests;
- before the approach of the first cold weather, compact the soil around the bush and cut watering;
- with the arrival of frost, spud the bush with a mixture of sand, earth and peat, and cover it on top with cardboard, sawdust, spruce branches or film;
- spread poison from pests around the bush;
- spruce branches can be harvested in April-May when frosts are unlikely.
A few tips for grafting roses
- If small sprouts appear in the leaf axils, it means that the cuttings are rooted and you can start hardening the future rose.
- The container in which the shoots will take root must be treated with potassium permanganate.
- Before planting, it is advisable to treat the cuttings with a growth stimulant (Heteroauxin, Kornevin, Epin or Zircon) – this will accelerate the survival of shoots.