- Features and characteristics of gooseberry
- Selection of varieties
- Soil selection, planting, fertilization and watering
- Gooseberry breeding methods
- Propagation by horizontal layers
- Propagation by vertical layers
- Features of the formation of bushes, pruning
- Pests and diseases. Control methods
Autumn is a good time to plant gooseberries. The article describes how to choose a variety, grow seedlings and plant gooseberries. And also consider the features of caring for this wonderful berry plant.
Features and characteristics of gooseberry
The main advantage of gooseberries is tasty and healthy berries, the harvest of which, unlike other berries, can be harvested from early summer to late autumn for 20 years. In summer, unripe fruits are used for compotes. Not fully ripe – for jam. Ripe and juicy berries – for marmalade.
Gooseberry roots penetrate the soil to a depth of 40 cm, therefore, with proper care, the shrub tolerates frost well. Thanks to the thorns that dot the stems, the gooseberry can serve as a reliable hedge not only from wild and ownerless four-legged animals, but also from thieves. It is difficult to get through the thorny thickets without getting hurt.
Selection of varieties
There are many varieties of gooseberries. Their main differences are the ripening time, the size of the berries, thorniness and frost resistance. Although some thermophilic varieties survive harsh winters, due to proper fall handling and careful winter care. See the comparison table for the most popular varieties. She will help make a choice for a novice amateur gardener.
Variety name Berries Special Features Frost resistance Disease and pest resistance Early and mid-early varieties Eaglet Black berries – up to 4 g Bushes are medium-sized, semi-sprawling, without thorns Afraid of an early thaw Resistant to disease Pink-2 Berries up to 10 g, oval, red-pink Sprawling, powerful bush, sparsely Frost resistant Rarely affected by powdery mildew Spring Berries are yellow-green, oval, large up to 10 g The bush is low, slightly spreading. Few thorns In winter, it requires separate care (insulation with snowdrifts) When waterlogged, it is affected by powdery mildew Gingerbread man Berries up to 5 g, dark red Bushes tend to thicken, slightly spiky Frost resistant Resistant to powdery mildew Affectionate Rounded oval berries, up to 8 g Slightly spreading bush Winter hardy Resistant to disease Northern captain Black oval berries 3-5 g Sprawling bush, vigorous, prone to thickening Winter hardy Affected by powdery mildew, quickly attracts yellow flies Mid-late and late varieties Russian yellow Yellow berries, up to 7 g Semi-spreading bush, spiky Frost resistant Disease resistant Malachite Green berries, up to 6 g Spreading bushes, prone to thickening, slightly spiky In winter, it is recommended to bend the branches to the ground for the winter. Resistant to powdery mildew Change Berries are red, rounded, up to 2.5 g Spreading bushes, strong, slightly spiky Suffering from early thaws Resistant to diseases and pests Date fruit Berries are large, rounded, up to 20 g Strongly spreading. Weak thorn bush Frost resistant Practically unaffected by diseases Northern captain Purple berries, up to 4 g The bush is powerful, slightly spreading, thornless Frost resistant Rarely affected by powdery mildew Ural Pink Berries are dark red, up to 4 g Moderately spreading bush Frost resistant Resistant to diseases and pests Russian Berries are dark red, up to 7 g Semi-sprawling bushes, medium spine Frost resistant. It is recommended to bend the branches to the ground for the winter. Sometimes affected by powdery mildew
In order to avoid failures when growing gooseberries, you need to experiment with varieties. If you grow several species with different ripening periods on one site, this will allow you to simultaneously feast on fresh berries all summer and process or sell them at your discretion.
Soil selection, planting, fertilization and watering
Gooseberries bear fruit well on chernozem, loamy and humus-rich soils. Very demanding for oxygen access to the root system. If the soil in the gooseberry plantations is not loosened enough, the roots go deeper into the soil, which requires additional nutrient resources. Areas that are insufficiently cleared of the rhizomes of weed plants, especially perennial ones, are unsuitable for planting gooseberries. When choosing a place, it is better to give preference to elevated, illuminated places..
Before planting, the selected area must be fertilized with peat or rotted manure (5–8 kg per 1 sq. M.) And introduced into the soil by loosening to a depth of 50 cm. Separately, a mixture of fertilizers is placed in each hole. For 10 kg of manure mixed with the ground: 200–250 g of superphosphate, 100 g of potassium sulfate, 50 g of potassium chloride. It is advisable to leave the dug, fertilized and water-filled pits (30/40) for 2 weeks. This will allow the beneficial substances to be completely absorbed into the soil. In subsequent years, organic, potash and phosphorus fertilizers are applied to the aisles in a year, nitrogen fertilizers – annually in spring.
The preferred method of planting gooseberries is in rows, with a distance between bushes of 1.5 m and between rows of 2 m. It depends on the selected variety and the thickening of the stems in the future. Before planting, the roots of the seedlings must be tamed to 20 cm, moistened in a clay mash and laid in a pre-moistened hole. The root collar should be at ground level, or better, if lower by 5 cm. In this case, the roots feed only themselves, grow stronger, which will have a positive effect on spring shoots. When planting, the root part should be trampled more densely into damp ground. After planting, shorten the seedling to 15 cm.This promotes better survival and good branching in spring.
Hot weather inhibits the development of the root system, so the best time to plant plants is late autumn or early spring..
Gooseberry does not tolerate waterlogging of soil and air. Poorly ventilated bushes are more likely to be damaged by powdery mildew. Recommended watering scheme:
- 1 time – in the spring, during bud break and the beginning of flowering (June);
- 2 times – in early July, when the berries ripen;
- 3 times – after harvest.
Tip: it is advisable to plant two seedlings in one hole, directing them in different directions.
Gooseberry breeding methods
The easiest way to propagate gooseberries is with horizontal or vertical layers. If you need to take the variety you like from a neighbor, then by cutting it off from the root or with lignified cuttings. The main thing in reproduction is to create the right conditions for the preservation of regrown cuttings.
Propagation by horizontal layers
In the spring, before the buds begin to bloom, recesses in the ground are pulled out for layering, fertilized with rotted manure and thoroughly moistened. Then one of the stems is bent, attached with a wooden “hairpin” (hook) to the prepared recess and covered with earth (mound). A bud that is in the ground will sprout roots and a separate sprout.
Propagation by vertical layers
It occurs according to a similar pattern, only the stems are laid in trenches along their entire length. This method is suitable when you need to get a large number of seedlings. Each bud – a separate seedling.
In autumn, the roots that have taken root and regrown stems must be dug up, separated from the main (uterine) stem and “digged in” for the winter in an inclined form. This will allow the weak root system to grow stronger over the winter under the snow..
It is necessary to plant seedlings in a permanent place in early spring. Proper care and timely watering are not the only conditions for obtaining a high-quality harvest. The main point in caring for gooseberries is pruning the bushes..
Features of the formation of bushes, pruning
The first two years after planting, pruning consists of removing damaged, diseased and the lowest branches inclined to the ground.
In the third and fourth year, you should remove excess root shoots, leaving only two strong shoots.
In subsequent years, both root shoots and old branches with a weak growth are removed. Up to 20 main stems should remain in the bush at the age of 1 to 6 years. Gradually, old branches are replaced with new, strong shoots. The center of the bushes should be cut more for light and fresh air..
Pests and diseases. Control methods
The most dangerous pest is the gooseberry sawfly. Its caterpillars can destroy an entire bush in a couple of weeks. The female of this pest is a large yellow fly that lays eggs on the lower part of the leaves. Within two weeks, caterpillars appear from them and eat up all the leaves, leaving only the hairs-veins. Then they go into the ground and pupate, and a month later a new generation appears from the pupae. It is not difficult to notice them, therefore, immediately when the first larvae appear, the bushes should be treated with a solution of tar (35 g per bucket of water + dissolved laundry soap). If the pest appeared after flowering, then the bushes are treated with entobacterin (50 g per bucket of water) or a solution of coniferous extract (1 tbsp.spoon per bucket of water).
Gooseberry is resistant to disease, but young shoots (when waterlogged) are often affected by a fungal disease – powdery mildew (American). Immediately after flowering, a cobweb-like bloom appears on the affected young stems, thickens and becomes like pieces of cotton wool. As a result, the plant lags behind in growth and fruiting. Affected stem ends should be cut off and burned in autumn. In early spring, before budding, the bushes are treated with copper or iron sulfate. Young stems at the onset of the disease are sprayed with lye from wood ash.
It is difficult to name a specific time when it is necessary to harvest gooseberries. After all, the harvest is harvested at different times, depending on the variety and needs. It remains to add that the early varieties ripen in mid-June, and the late ones bear fruit before the onset of cold weather. But if there are several varieties on the site, then thanks to cross-pollination, the yield will increase, and the size of the berries will noticeably increase.