Paving technology: we make perfect paths ourselves

Recommendation points

In order for the surface paved with paving stones to meet the planned technical and aesthetic parameters, it is necessary to strictly follow the technological requirements at each stage of installation. Violation of the paving technology leads to damage to concrete elements, surface instability and rapid deterioration. Compliance with these simple instructions and tips will guarantee long-term operation and a proper view of the equipped bridge area..

Paving technology

Advice.On a surface allotted for paving, it is imperative to check the condition of the soil, and when performing objects with significant loads, a full geotechnical study of the surface should be carried out. In this case, the state of the soil is determined by the geologist, and the designer of the work chooses the types of structures and the corresponding communications.

Stage 1. Project

The first stage in the process of laying paving stones is the preparation of a project, which should contain:

  • the size of the paving site;
  • determining the surface load;
  • drainage conditions (longitudinal and transverse slopes);
  • type of paving stone, its configuration, colors and quantity, paving plan and installation method.

Paving technology

The implementation of the project should begin with geodetic and measuring works, in which the territory is broken down and its levels are determined. At the points of stake, pegs or metal pins are driven into the ground, indicating the level at which the surface will be located. A thread is pulled through these marks, which determines the location of the upper edge of the paving stones or curbs..

Stage 2. Preparation of the area

To prepare the area for paving, it is necessary to remove the top layer of humus and fertile soil at the paving site. It is recommended to determine the depth of the excavation, taking into account the thickness of the paving stones and the base for it. As a rule, it should be within the range of 25โ€“65 cm. If the soil at the bottom of the excavated pit is unstable, the soil should be additionally compacted. You should also clean the ground covering from roots and plant residues..

Paving technology

If under the removed fertile layer there are soil layers that are not permeable to runoff, for example, thick humus-containing layers of chernozem, plastic clay or loam, it is necessary to increase the digging depth until stable soils are reached. In the case of a significant increase in the depth of the pit, instead of excessively removed soil, you can fill in crushed stone or other soil with better properties.

When digging a pit, it is very important to determine the level of groundwater. When it is above the level of laying the base under the paving stones, it is necessary to lower it by performing drainage work. On small areas, the second stage can be done manually, on large areas using machines such as bulldozers, scrapers and graders.

Stage 3. Profiling of the territory

At this stage, it is necessary to combine the design of the surface configuration (turns, roundings, intersections) with respect to the level of surfaces and slopes. Be sure to take into account the natural features of the object, its landscape.

Paving technology

The slope of the surface is designed depending on the sewer pipes, but it is recommended to make it in the range of 2.5โ€“4.0%, which corresponds to a slope of 2.5โ€“4 cm per meter of length. The priming layer is leveled using a layer of coarse sand up to 10 mm thick. After that, vibro-compaction of the leveled bottom of the pit is carried out. The process of leveling and tamping the soil is of great importance for the formation of the future surface, its drainage and stability, therefore, it requires careful and qualified actions.

Step 4. Surface framing

Depending on the purpose of the paving and the planned load on the surface, the boundaries of the pit are determined and fixed using curbs, curbs (including garden ones) or palisades, between which the paving stones will be enclosed. Curbs prevent differences in the paved surface by strengthening the edges and keeping the shape.

Paving technology

These concrete products are installed on a semi-dry concrete base with a gap of about 3 mm between the individual elements. Seams are not filled.

Stage 5. Foundation device

The key to the correct laying of paving stones is the formation of a reliable base on top of the previously leveled and compacted soil. If the foundation does not correspond to the project, the paving stones will not withstand certain loads and such paving will be shaky and short-lived. The base material is gravel or crushed crushed stone of 5-40 mm fraction, which is laid in layers 10-15 cm thick. Then each of them is carefully compacted (about 20% of the original thickness) to ensure proper endurance and strength of the base in operation.

Paving technology

In the base for the top layer, a material of a fraction of an intermediate value between the grain size of the bedding and the base should be used. This method will eliminate the mixing of the bedding with the lower layers during the operation of the paving stones and the possible subsidence of the tiles and the movement of the joints as a result. The base thickness depends primarily on the purpose of the surface and the planned loads. For paving adjacent areas, sidewalks or paths, a 20 cm base is sufficient, and surfaces designed for constant vehicle traffic require a base with a thickness of at least 30โ€“45 cm. The choice of base thickness is also influenced by the results of studies of the properties of the soil on which it is laid. So, viscous soils (such as clay) require a thick base.

Stage 6. Preparing the backfill layer

Above the base there should be a mounting layer of bedding. The bedding is crushed stone screening of fraction 0-4 mm or sifted sand of fraction 0-7 mm. It is not recommended to use a cement-sand mixture for the filling device. Regardless of the operating loads and the type of paving stones, the thickness of the backfill after compaction should be between three and five centimeters. The backfill should be leveled so that the paving stones laid on it are approximately 1 cm higher than the planned level.

Paving technology

Such actions allow by tamping to level out the insignificant permissible difference in heights of individual tiles. The final compaction of the backfill is carried out only after laying the paving stones using a vibrating plate with a rubber pad.

Paving technology

Step 7. Laying paving stones

In order not to damage the prepared bedding, paving starts from the installed curbs, and for laying subsequent rows, you can use the paved surface as a support. The direction of movement is from the edge of the territory to the center. The laying of each row of tiles should be controlled with a cord in order to achieve an even distribution of tiles in the area..

Paving technology

In areas intended for constant vehicle traffic, tiles are laid at an angle to the direction of travel. This diagonal paving ensures a more even distribution of the load on each concrete element, making the surface more stable. It also reduces the noise level from the wheels. At the edges of the paving area, that is, at the border of the junction of the paving elements and curbs, the tiles should be cut evenly with a special saw so that it fits snugly against the curb and has a proper aesthetic appearance. Paving stones should not be cut more than halfway.

Paving technology

Due to the peculiarities of the technology for the production of paving slabs and the use of natural materials, deviations in the colors of individual paving elements may occur. So that on the paving surface (especially in the case of a large area) there is no noticeable difference in shades of the same color, we recommend laying a pavement simultaneously from at least three pallets.

Paving technology

Step 8. Filling the joints

After the tiles have been laid, the joints are filled. The material for these purposes must be selected so as to ensure elastic mutual transfer of the load between the concrete elements. We recommend using dry washed sand (no impurities) of fraction 0โ€“2 mm. Coarse sand can get stuck and unevenly fill the joints, and the presence of impurities (such as clay) can cause stains on the surface of the paving stones. Excess sand after grouting is eliminated before vibrating the surface, and then, if necessary, fill the resulting gaps. Multiple filling of the joints with simultaneous watering of them is permissible, which facilitates and accelerates this process.

Paving technology

Particular attention should be paid to the observance of the necessary intervals between the paving stones. Contrary to popular belief, distance thresholds on the side surfaces of paving units do not determine the width of the joints..

Advice.For sidewalks, paths and other pedestrian areas, the seams should be at least 2-3 mm, and for roads and sections intended for traffic, 3-5 mm. As the work progresses, the pavement must be leveled; all detected deviations in the width of the gaps require correction.

The presence of an interval between adjacent tiles allows them to interact with each other, contributes to the distribution of the load. Also, the seams neutralize minor permissible deviations in the size of concrete elements (up to 2 mm) and compensate for dimensional changes caused by temperature fluctuations. If the paving stones are laid too tightly, the joint filling material will not work..

Paving technology

As a result, under the action of loads and weather conditions, the destruction of paving stones, the formation of abrasions and cracks on the edges and corners of concrete elements is possible. Often these destructive processes begin and are noticeable immediately after the paved surface is compacted. Thus, poor quality seams are one of the most common reasons for improper paving and groundless complaints about the quality of the paving stones..

Step 9. Vibrating surface seal

The paved surface should be additionally compacted. This process is carried out on a dry and clean pavement using a vibration machine (vacuum cleaner) using a rubber pad, the function of which is to cushion and protect the tiles. In the absence of an overlay, the vibrating plate can scratch and rub the concrete elements, and sand from the seams can penetrate into the porous surface of the paving stones and form spots. Vibration compaction of the site is carried out evenly from the edges to the center until the planned surface level and the stability of the concrete elements are reached. After that, it is possible to refill the joints..

Paving technology

After the completion of all these technological processes, the surface of the site, paved with paving stones, must be flat, smooth (without bulges, depressions), stable, integral, with seams of the same width. A surface that meets these requirements is ready for use.

Read more  Organic farming. Taming the weeds
Rate the article
( No ratings yet )
Add comments

;-) :| :x :twisted: :smile: :shock: :sad: :roll: :razz: :oops: :o :mrgreen: :lol: :idea: :grin: :evil: :cry: :cool: :arrow: :???: :?: :!: