- Greenhouse preparation for planting
- Features of planting seeds for seedlings
- Features of growing seedlings in a greenhouse in winter
- Planting seedlings in a permanent place
- Tips for winter planting care
- How to humidify a room in winter
In the fall, it is time for greenhouse owners to consider growing fresh vegetables in the winter. In this article you will find answers to the questions of how to choose the right place for planting seeds in a greenhouse, how to care for seedlings, what you need to know in order to have a good harvest of vegetables in winter and much more..
Its own greenhouse at the summer cottage is fresh vitamins on the table at any time of the year. You can grow literally all fruits and vegetables in it, from greens to potatoes. But potatoes are grown in summer, and the most popular are vegetables such as cucumbers, tomatoes, bell peppers and cabbage, which, if desired, can be had all year round. And now about everything in order.
Greenhouse preparation for planting
We talked about how to process and prepare the greenhouse for the winter season in the article “Autumn preparation of the greenhouse for the next season.” It remains to thoroughly ventilate the room, install and connect all heating and lighting devices and once again rinse the hoses of the irrigation system. The soil in the beds is also fertilized from its own compost pit. Now you need:
- pick up seeds. When choosing, you can use the information from the article “Features of the purchase of seed in online stores”;
- heat the greenhouse to +22 ° С. This is described in the article “Geothermal heating of a greenhouse. We do it ourselves ”;
- in the presence of subsoil heating, achieve the final soil temperature (up to +18 ° C). For more details on the methods of heating the soil in the greenhouse, we have considered in the article “Unusual greenhouses. We increase energy efficiency “.
Advice:if artificial heating of the soil is not provided, then before planting the seeds, pour boiling water over the soil and cover the bed (rack) with foil. The soil will warm up within 2 hours. After that, you can start planting seeds for seedlings..
Features of planting seeds for seedlings
In a greenhouse that functions all year round, you should count on more than just planting vegetables for winter cultivation. Vegetables planted in winter will stop bearing fruit by early spring. Therefore, for planting seedlings, you should use the conveyor method. For this, space is allocated on a separate rack, which is closer to the living lighting – to the glass.
Seeds should be “sown” in the place designated for seedlings every 2 weeks. So for 1 sq. m seedlings will grow with different ages.
Since it is not recommended to use the soil for a long time for one type of plant, after 4 stages of growing and transplanting seedlings, cucumbers should be changed with tomatoes, and pepper with cabbage, etc..
Note. After the plants of the 4th stage stop bearing fruit (in June), the greenhouse should be treated as when preparing the greenhouse for winter. After airing, fertilizing the soil and processing the greenhouse, the next stage of seedlings can be planted in fertilized places. The next greenhouse processing is September-November.
In winter, plants indoors should be more often (than in summer outdoors) revitalized with fertilizers, since seedlings require a lot of strength, light and oxygen.
Features of growing seedlings in a greenhouse in winter
Since the soil is fertilized after the autumn preparation of the greenhouse for planting, it is not necessary to heal the seedlings with fertilizers before planting. But after the first stage of planting in a permanent place, the soil should be fertilized. To do this, loosen the row in which the seeds will be sown and add the finished compost.
Despite the distance between plants, in greenhouse conditions they very quickly absorb moisture and oxygen, as well as nutrients. Therefore, seedlings should be watered as the soil dries up (2-3 times a week). For irrigation, water is used, the temperature of which is close to the temperature of the soil. If the seedlings do not receive enough moisture, they will not stop growing, but, being transplanted, the flowers and ovary will quickly fall off..
Seedlings transplanted to a permanent place must be loosened after each drying out and added compost or nitrogen and, less often, potash fertilizers.
Note. If the greenhouse is small and it is not planned to grow a lot of vegetables, in order to avoid unnecessary loss of electricity, the seedlings are grown in the house, planted in peat cups. The greenhouse begins to be heated a few days before the start of planting, the seedlings are planted along with the container in which the plants are located.
Planting seedlings in a permanent place
It is necessary to observe the conditions required for plants: maintaining a sufficient temperature and humidity in the room, systematic ventilation and watering. It will be good if you organize drip irrigation of plants in the greenhouse. The average soil temperature for all vegetables is not less than +18 ° С, soil moisture is more than 85%, air – + 20 … + 22 ° С.
In racks designed for cucumbers and other climbing plants, twine is pulled to the ceiling so that the plant can comfortably drag upward. To do this, a hook must be attached from the very bottom of the rack or pins must be initially planned, to which the twine and the plants themselves will subsequently be attached at the stage of growth from seedlings.
Tomatoes also require support with support and twine. This will keep the branches with ripe fruits..
In addition to the fact that twine is attached to the cucumbers, support is still needed. Without it, the stem will tilt and break..
The top rack with cucumbers can be “directed” for growth in different directions.
Pepper, despite the fact that it grows upwards, must also be strengthened with support. With its help, it will be possible to support the branches with fruits by tying them. It is necessary to nourish the seedlings by spraying them with medicinal preparations (once every 2 months). Pepper fruits suffer in hot weather and require increased attention outdoors. Therefore, it is recommended to continue its summer cultivation in the greenhouse..
Interesting! If you plant bell peppers next to a hot variety, then it will become bitter in taste. Hot peppers will never be sweet. These two species cannot be planted together. Close proximity to other crops and varieties is also undesirable. Therefore, it is advisable to grow seedlings in a greenhouse between several types of pepper..
Cabbage is the least “capricious” vegetable, so its varieties (early, middle and late) can be planted at the discretion of the owner. It is not necessary to look for varieties specifically for greenhouse cultivation..
Tips for winter planting care
When the ripening period begins, the lower leaves are gradually removed. But there should be at least 15 leaves on the stem! Thus, the plant will receive more light, improve air access, and good air exchange helps to avoid damage by fungal and viral diseases..
In greenhouses, plants are exposed to diseases only with a lack of moisture, oxygen and non-observance of the correct temperature regime.!
How to humidify a room in winter
Humidification is done in different ways, depending on which heating system is installed.
If batteries are installed in the greenhouse, there should be containers with water next to them. Pipes need to be watered frequently. Vapors humidify air and plants.
The insulated floor is moistened in a similar way, it is often watered.
Stove-heated greenhouses are humidified by tanks with heated, steam-generating water. In addition, metal barrels or hot water tanks keep the room warm for a long time..
Early ripe varieties of cucumbers for winter cultivation:
Variety The beginning of fruiting Description Specifications Productivity per sq. m Alma-Ata 50-60th day after germination Finger-shaped fruits. Weight up to 200 g Long stems, can be grown on vertical garters Up to 30 kg Surprise 66 50-55th day after germination Fruits are cylindrical, elongated. Weight 112 g, length up to 18 cm Stems up to 2.5 m Up to 40 kg Moscow 50-55th day after germination The fruits are elongated. Up to 40 cm. Weight from 300 to 600 g Long-climbing 28 kg Surprise 66 50-60th day after germination Cylindrical fruits Stem length 2–2.5 m Up to 40 kg
Early ripe tomato varieties for winter cultivation:
Variety The beginning of fruiting after germination Description Productivity per sq. m Semko-Sinbad F1 Day 90 The fruits are round. Weight up to 90 g 10 Kg Typhoon F1 80-90th day Rounded fruits, up to 90 g 8-9 kg Blagovest F1 80th day Rounded fruits up to 110 g Up to 20 kg Samara F1 85th day The fruits are round, oblong. Up to 80 g 10-15 kg
Varieties and types of cabbage for growing in a greenhouse:
Variety Features: Ripening period Number one K-206 Simultaneous ripening of the entire crop. Small heads 120 days Golden hectare 1432 Head of cabbage weight up to 3 kg 110-130 days Dietmar early Super early. Head of cabbage weight 2.5 kg 50-70 days Chinese cabbage Early ripening 20-40 days Cauliflower Demanding high humidity Early maturing: 96 days. Mid-season and late: 120 to 200 days Broccoli Frost resistant 45 days
Popular varieties of pepper for growing in heifers:
Variety Specifications Features: Productivity from one bush Orange king Early ripe Large orange fruits 150 g 2-3 kg Prince Silver Early ripe Fruits are conical, red, 90-100 g 2-2.5 kg Cow’s ear Mid-season Juicy red fruits, 120-140 g 2.5-3 kg Hercules Mid-season Dark green or red, 80-120 g 2.5-3 kg Golden Tamara Mid late Fruits are round, large, up to 200 g 3-4 kg