Electrical work in an apartment can be conditionally divided into two types:
1) repair or replacement of individual elements of the electrical network (sockets, switches, wiring, lamps, etc.) without changing the general scheme;
2) complete replacement or laying of the electrical network in the apartment with a change in the general scheme.
Let’s consider the first option. In this case, you do not need a new electrical project. Of course, it is desirable that the work is carried out by qualified specialists, but, in the absence of such an opportunity, the simplest work can be done by yourself, remembering the mandatory observance of safety precautions during electrical work.
I would like to give one very important advice right away: before starting work, it is necessary to turn off the machine in the electrical panel in order to de-energize the wires with which you are going to work. Then, using an indicator screwdriver (price 30 rubles), make sure that there is no phase on any of the wires that you will touch. This is to ensure your safety at work..
My colleagues and I have met with cases of blatant illiteracy when performing electrical work, when a phase remained in the dashboard after turning off the machine on one of the wires.
In this case, you cannot continue independent work, but you must call an electrician.
As for the second case, when you decide to lay a new power grid in the apartment, everything is more complicated. Only specialists can carry out such work. By the beginning of the work, you must have an electrical project approved by Energonadzor.
In case of apartment redevelopment, it is made after – or together – with the architectural plan.
An electrical project is usually made and approved by Energonadzor by the organization that carries out construction work in your apartment. It can also be ordered from your home electrical engineer or from a third party..
Why do electrical and architectural designs need to be consistent with each other? The fact is that the electrical circuit, which is available in any architectural project, may not take into account the maximum input power of the machines installed at the entrance to the apartment. In this case, when all energy consumers are turned on in the apartment, an overload of the network will occur..
Usually in new houses there is a certain reserve for increasing the input power of the machines. In order to use it, you must also contact the organization operating the house. There they will tell you whether it is possible in principle and how much it will cost.
So, you have all the necessary documents to start the repair. You conclude an agreement with a company for the production of repair (including electrical) work in your apartment, after which you just have to choose the electrical accessories you like (sockets, switches) and lamps, as well as the necessary household appliances.
If you are going to install air conditioners, forced ventilation, satellite TV, Internet, you need to contact the companies that provide these services and find out their electrical requirements. You can forget about everything else. Of course, this is the most preferred option, but it is also the most expensive..
However, more often citizens independently hire a team and carry out repair management themselves. It is clear that in this case you will save a lot of money, although you will spend a lot of your time (I will not consider the legal subtleties of such an option in this article). Do not forget that electrical work begins one of the first (cable laying), and ends one of the last (installation of fittings and lamps).
If you decide to lead a team of specialists yourself, then remember the order of the work carried out:
First, the cables of the socket group, telephone cable, antenna cable, twisted pair, speaker cables for home theater are routed. These cables can be laid before the tie is made.
During the manufacture of the screed, do not forget about the installation of underfloor heating, if you decide that it is necessary.
Warm floors are usually installed under the tiles. They can be laid under laminate, parquet and parquet flooring, but there is a risk that wooden coatings will not withstand such a temperature regime..
Lighting and switch cables are usually laid at the same time or after walls and partitions have been erected..
Socket boxes for electrical fittings are installed after filling the walls and laying tiles, and the electrical fittings and lighting fixtures – after finishing the walls and ceilings.
Wiring in bathrooms has its own characteristics associated with high humidity in the room. According to current standards, bathrooms are divided into categories 0, 1, 2 and 3.
The requirements for each of them are detailed in the corresponding SNiPs..
In the bathrooms, you must use waterproof sockets and lamps. Also, for outlets in the bathroom, an RCD or differential machine with a calculated leakage current of 30 mA is needed.
For bathroom lighting, I would recommend using 12-volt fixtures and placing the transformer outside the bathroom..
Sockets, switches and electrical appliances must be at least 60 cm away from the bathroom and sink.
Also, according to modern GOSTs, a potential equalization system is mandatory for bathrooms (grounding on a separate bus of metal baths, shower trays, sinks, pipes, construction fittings).
Features of materials used in electrical work:
1. Cables. As a rule, the lines of the lighting network are laid with VVGng-LS 3×2.5 cable, the lines of the outlet network – with NYM 3×2.5 cable. An electric stove needs a cable with a larger wire cross-section. For telephone wiring, I advise you to use a modern, double-insulated, four-core telephone cable. For satellite television, the brand of cable will be suggested to you by specialists from the company that installs satellite equipment. Wiring to computer sockets (RJ-45) is carried out using a twisted pair of the fourth, or better the fifth category.
2. Electrical panel, circuit breakers, differential circuit breakers (for household consumers), RCD can be purchased both domestic and imported in construction markets, as well as in specialized stores, which is preferable. The technical characteristics of all listed devices must be indicated in the electrical project.
Find out about the possibility of installing a dual-mode electric meter in the organization operating your home.
3. Electrical accessories. There is a very rich selection of electrical accessories on the modern market, ranging from inexpensive Turkish switches to exclusive German and Italian products. If you wish, you can purchase LED switches to make them easier to find in the dark. All manufacturers have such models..
I also want to draw your attention to floor heating controllers. They are usually white and come complete with underfloor heating. Therefore, if you want them to be combined with the rest of the electrical fittings, then you should pay attention to those manufacturers who produce their own regulators for warm floors..
Think about whether you need smooth dimmers.
In conclusion, I would like to emphasize that the electrical project and all electrical work must be carried out by certified specialists and organizations that have the appropriate licenses.