Let’s start with the fact that the bath is a damp room. Which means possible fungus on walls and pipes. Of course, it is necessary to fight the fungus not only with construction and chemical agents. So, it is necessary to timely repair all the current plumbing – it is she who, as a rule, becomes the main reason for the appearance of fungus in the bathroom. Check and clean ventilation and extractor hood. Install a powerful fan if it is weak. This is especially true of summer time, when the heating supply to heated towel rails is turned off or at the time when hot water is turned off. Before laying the tiles on the wall, it is recommended to put the waterproofing on the floor and treat the walls with anti-fungal coatings. If one of the walls is external, then it makes sense to insulate it. Heaters are of two types – based on fiberglass and extruded polystyrene foam. Styrofoam is better, but more expensive.
Insulation is laid between metal frames, on which moisture-resistant drywall can then be attached, thereby leveling the wall at the same time. On drywall, you can separately and additionally put waterproofing again, then prime the surface and lay the tiles.
Tile adhesive also differs depending on the conditions and for what it will be used. In particular, there are adhesives: frost-resistant, quick-drying, for outdoor use, porcelain stoneware, ceramic tiles, etc. The glue can be either dry, requiring dissolution, or ready-to-use. Let’s characterize the main adhesives.
Cementitious mortars with additives, as a rule, refer to dry adhesives, which give thin-layer adhesive mixtures with high adhesion and compressive strength. Especially recommended for laying floor tiles.
Latex and acrylic mixtures also have a high binding capacity, besides, these adhesives are more elastic than conventional cement.
Adhesives with polymer additives are more moisture resistant, but not completely waterproof, this should be remembered.
To liquid, i.e. ready-to-use adhesives include organic mastics of various compositions based on latex or oil industry waste. They are cheap, but the adhesion of mastics is much worse, and the elasticity is lower. Use them for laying on drywall or plywood.
Finally, it remains to pay attention to the tiles. Try to choose the highest grade tiles possible. It would be ideal if you hold the tiles you want to buy in high humidity conditions for at least a month. This will make it possible to understand the quality of the glazed coating, which, under the influence of humidity, water and temperature, simply cracks and crumbles..
It is worth paying attention to the marking of the tiles. The hand means the destination for the walls, and the foot for the floor. The presence of a snowflake indicates frost resistance, and a foot on a shaded background indicates an increased ability to abrasion, and finally, a flame icon with numbers 1 or 2 indicates the number of tile firing. Double firing means increased rigidity and fragility, although such a coating does not bend or deform.
How to avoid dampness in the bathroom
While decorating bathrooms with ceramic tiles, not all of us know that sooner or later this method of waterproofing will “crack” and a problem with dampness will appear in the house..
Even if the tile is waterproof, moisture can penetrate the floor or wall structure through the joints between the tiles, through various gaps around the pipes, shower tray or bathtub. When moisture reaches the deepest layers of the floor, moisture begins to damage the structure of the floor, and the steam that accumulates on the walls can cause the appearance of all kinds of fungi and mold, which, in turn, can seep through the wall and into another room. That is why it is necessary to take care of additional waterproofing..
First of all, you need to remember about the primer. It is enough to use a universal primer, provided that the walls and floor in the bathroom are carefully prepared for finishing. This preparation significantly reduces the absorbency of the substrate, and will also bind the residual dust that remains after cleaning the surface. But if there is no confidence in the quality of the screed, plaster or drywall sheathing, you should use the primer that will additionally strengthen the surface. Before laying the tiles on the floor, you need to level the floor surface with special preparations based on cement or gypsum mortar..
One way to avoid moisture is with a waterproofing membrane that is applied underneath the ceramic tiles. This membrane consists of a mineral-filled cement slurry modified with a synthetic resin. The glue, in turn, adheres better to the membrane than to film or roofing material.
You should be aware that the composition of the membrane after stirring must be used within two hours. After this time, it begins to harden, so it is better to take some of the components from the package, observing the proportions indicated by the manufacturer in order to avoid excessive consumption of the drug.
For corners and pipe holes, rubber coated polyester fabric sealing tape is used.
Walls and floors, as well as areas protected with sealing tape, must be covered with two or three layers of waterproofing compound. In total, the entire thickness of this mass is 0.8 mm.
Another way to avoid moisture is with waterproof tile adhesive with added resin. First, the mill is lubricated with glue (using a spatula with 3-8 mm teeth, depending on the size of the tile), and then (after 6 hours) the tiles are glued. After a day, you can start grouting, and after 3 days – on the floor. Then you need to fill the gaps with sealant in the places of plumbing fixtures.