Choosing ceramic tiles is made according to 3 criteria: the purpose of the tile, its operational data and compliance with the design solution.
For facing the facades of houses, balconies and terraces, tiles of increased frost resistance are used. The more the tile absorbs moisture, the less its frost resistance. If the designations AI or BI are present on the packaging with tiles, then it has high frost resistance. For interior work, tiles with codes AIII or BIII are used. Chemically resistant tiles should be used in the kitchen and bathroom (not exposed to detergents, shampoos, food, chemically aggressive cleaning agents). Such a tile has an “AA” symbol in the marking. Less chemically resistant tiles are marked A, B, C, D.
Floor Tile Classes
Floor tiles it is divided into 5 classes by purpose:
1. For rooms that are little used and where footwear is not used (toilet, bathroom). Class designation – PEI I.
2. For rooms with low walking intensity, where people walk in slippers (living quarters, except for kitchens, hallways, balconies and stairs). Designation – PEI II.
3. For covering floors in rooms with medium walking intensity, where people walk in ordinary house shoes (in all types of living quarters). Designation – PEI III.
4. For floors subject to moderate to heavy abrasion (stairs and all areas of houses). Designation – PEI IV.
5. For floors with any traffic intensity. Designation – PEI V.
When choosing floor tiles, remember that it is very slippery to walk on glossy tiles. Therefore, you need to purchase a rough tile. Floor tiles are thicker than wall tiles and are more durable.
Ceramic tiles are classified by grade. The marking on the package with tiles of the first grade must be red, with the second grade – blue, with the third – green. In the first grade, the number of defective tiles does not exceed 5 pieces per 100 suitable ones. The lower the grade, the more rejects are allowed. Low grade tiles may have curvature. You can check this by placing two tiles to each other..
The tiles are sorted by caliber – an indicator of the deviation of the actual tile size from the nominal one. The caliber of the tile is indicated on its packaging. It is advisable to purchase tiles of the same caliber to ensure even seams..
According to the shape of the edges, the tiles are divided into 3 types:
1. Type “station wagon”. Such tiles have beveled edges and fit without a gap between them..
2. Tiles with rounded edges.
3. Tiles with straight edges. These tiles are glued using plastic crosses to ensure an even gap between them..
When buying tiles, you must also make sure that all packages have the same color tone, since different shades are allowed in tiles of the same batch..
Types of tiles by manufacturing method
According to the manufacturing method, the following are distinguished types of tiles:
1. Majolica (metlakh tiles) and cottoforte are covered with an opaque glaze, applied to a pink base (utel), are double fired. Majolica is used for wall cladding and cottoforte for indoor floors..
2. For making terral expensive raw materials are used, it has a white color, the pattern is applied directly to its surface. Also used for indoor wall cladding.
3. Terracotta (cotto) does not undergo glazing, is used for covering floors indoors, has a reddish tint.
4. Monocottura is subjected to single firing and has frost-resistant qualities..
five. Clinker can have glazed, unglazed and vitrified surfaces, used for indoor and outdoor flooring, for facing external walls.
6. Ceramic granite produced by pressing from heavy clays with the addition of minerals. It is used as an alternative to natural stone, has better technical characteristics and is cheaper in price. Polished porcelain stoneware is used for interior decoration of shops, banks, restaurants. Matt porcelain stoneware is an excellent material for cladding floors that are subject to severe abrasion. “Waxed” porcelain stoneware has a more attractive shiny appearance than matte, smooth irregularities on the surface of such tiles do not allow slipping when walking. Porcelain stoneware has high wear resistance, frost resistance, chemically resistant and has no radiation background, unlike natural stone.
The traditional color scheme of the cladding has two background tones – lighter at the top of the wall, and darker at the bottom. To decorate such a cladding, thin strips, ornamented borders, baseboards are used. Ceramic tiles that imitate natural wild stone, brick and wood are popular. When facing with such tiles, the masonry is made uneven, and the seams are deliberately thick in order to enhance the effect of naturalism.
For the sophisticated buyer, there are tiles with a complex profile, “chameleon” tiles with subtle overflows. Tiles with decorative elements lined up vertically – stylized flowers or abstract ornaments – will help to diversify the cladding design. As always, the ethnic design trend is popular – tiles with stylized hieroglyphs or in African style, you can also find “Celtic” tiles and country-style cladding. The classic design of the bathrooms is in a marine style with images of waves, fish, shells and algae. If you don’t like bright colors, choose tiles in delicate pastel colors, the patterns on it are light and fuzzy.
Additional accessories – heated towel rails, shelf tiles and soap dishes will also diversify the interior.