Filters for water purification

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Water commonly used in domestic and industrial water supply systems contains a certain amount of solid particles in suspension, such as sand, rust, fibers, dirt, etc..

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These particles, ranging in diameter from a few microns to several millimeters, are often the cause of failure and corrosion of water supply systems, valves and electrical appliances. Therefore, to solve the problem, it is necessary to install filters of the appropriate size on the inlet line of water supply systems or in front of the equipment to be protected. Protective filters differ in their parameters and design characteristics.

Filters can be made of two elements (filter head and bowl) or three elements (filter head, bowl and threaded socket), and can be made of brass or food grade plastic. Filter cartridges, in turn, differ according to material and functional characteristics:

  • washable PP cartridges with nylon mesh, cell diameter from 60 to 90 microns for drinking water;
  • washable stainless steel cartridges, with stainless steel mesh,
    with a mesh diameter of 90 microns, for drinking water;
  • washable stainless steel plate cartridges, micro-slotted,
    with a mesh diameter of 90 microns, for drinking water;
  • disposable cartridges with wire wound 5 m 20 for technical applications;
  • activated carbon cartridges for technical systems,
    removing the unpleasant taste, color and smell of chlorine;
  • crystalline polyphosphate cartridges for technical installations, against the formation of scale and corrosion;
  • dechlorinating cartridge for technical systems.
  • Self-cleaning filters

    Self-cleaning water filters today they are the most advanced technological solution in the field of household and industrial filtration and are intended for use in drinking and industrial water systems. Installing a self-cleaning filter instead of the traditional filter eliminates the need for periodic manual cleaning or replacement of the filter cartridge. The cartridge is continuously maintained and kept clean by periodic backflushing combined with an effective patented mechanical cleaning system. For self-cleaning in simple models, turn the upper handle. In the automatic model, it is enough to program the timer for a certain frequency of self-cleaning, and the device itself will rinse the filter, guaranteeing full autonomy and operational safety. If there is an excessive amount of suspended sand impurities in the water, a “Cyclone” filter or a column clarifying filter must be installed in front of the self-cleaning filter. Self-cleaning filters are equipped with a 95 micron stainless steel mesh cartridge.

    Self-cleaning sand filters can be used in systems for household, technical and industrial purposes.
    “CYCLONE” filters are used when there is an excessive amount of sand or solid particles in the water, and the use of traditional or self-cleaning filters is not justified; Self-cleaning sand filters have the advantage that they do not require periodic manual cleaning or replacement of the plate cartridge. Filter cleanliness is ensured by periodic rinsing. To clean, you need to turn the knob for 10-15 seconds.

    Demineralization filters

    Demineralization filters for technical use only. They are used to produce demineralised water for irons, car batteries, dehumidifiers and household steam generators. The demineralization cartridge contains a mixture of anionic and cationic resins in a proportion selected to remove salts either by positive (cations) or negative (anions) charges. In this way, almost all the salts present in the water are removed, and demineralized water is produced, i.e. salt-free water. The cartridge is equipped with a chromatic indicator that changes from green to blue, indicating that the resin content is depleted and signaling the need to replace it.

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    Filters – dechlorinators

    Filters – dechlorinators designed to remove excess chlorine, its derivatives and organic impurities from water.

    Centrifugal filters

    Centrifugal filters – separators are separators of sand and inorganic particles. Their structure is specially designed to create
    vortex when water enters. The rotation of the water separates the heavier particles by centrifugal force. Separation is carried out continuously at constant operating pressure and without moving parts.
    Solids separated from the water are removed using a small drain pipe located at the bottom. Filters are made of stainless steel.

    Water, in the course of its natural cycle in nature, passes through various types of soil layers to return back to rivers and lakes, often used to discharge wastewater from industrial enterprises and residential areas.
    The quality of drinking water is constantly monitored by the relevant authorities, but this does not exclude the risk of leakage of pollutants present in public water supply networks, often too old.

    How can we ensure the high quality of the water that enters our homes, flows from our tap, and on which we cook our food every day??

    A sensible solution would be to sterilize the water using UV lamps and reverse osmosis. Sterilization can be carried out separately or in combination, using reverse osmosis water treatment systems.

    Sterilization filters

    Sterilization filters equipped with an additional tap for water intake; they are installed under the sink and ensure the supply of filtered water that does not contain contaminants – both chemical (free chlorine, primary and secondary organic compounds, oils, detergents, pesticides, etc.) and microbiological (bacteria, viruses, mold, spores , yeast, etc.).
    The principle of the filters is very simple. The water first passes through a 20-micron activated carbon filter, clearing out suspended particles and chemical contaminants, then, before entering the tap, the water is exposed to
    sterilization by ultraviolet rays. Installation is very simple, the filter is usually installed under the sink and is designed for one water intake. Used in systems for drinking water supply.

    Modern compact household water treatment system. By means of an osmotic membrane, in combination with filtration and subsequent sterilization
    ultraviolet rays, the system is able to provide a supply of clean water (7-10 liters), which does not have unpleasant odors, is chemically and biologically pure. You can drink this water, cook food on it, make coffee, make ice, wash fruits and vegetables, pour into an iron, etc. The system is easy to install and is usually located under the sink, designed for one point of water intake.

    Proportional pipettes add compositions based on polyphosphates to water in proportion to its consumption (4 p.p.m.). This does not degrade water quality; at the same time, salts, which can precipitate and form deposits, remain dissolved, and pipelines are protected from corrosion, which saves energy and reduces operating costs. These devices are very easy to install and are usually installed at the entrance to the water supply network, in front of boilers, boilers, washing machines and dishwashers..
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    Water from a mains supply or wells used for food and technical needs often has undesirable properties such as bacterial contamination, high acidity, hardness, the presence of algae, etc. In such cases, it is necessary to install a water pretreatment system including a metering pump. Such a pump provides precise and controlled mixing of a given reagent into the flowing water..

    Water softeners

    Water, when passing through the soil layers, is enriched with various mineral salts, which determine its general mineralization. Some of these salts, such as calcium and magnesium, make water “hard”. Water hardness is a major contributor to the formation of scale and deposits that lead to malfunctioning water supply systems, boilers, boilers, electrical appliances and fittings. If the hardness of the water exceeds 15 fr..

    Softeners help to solve the problem of limescale, they are very easy to install and operate. The softener consists of a tank for ion-exchange resin, a tank for salt (necessary for periodic regeneration of the resin) and a hydropneumatic valve controlled by a programming timer, which at specified time intervals flushes the device to maintain it in a constantly working condition and ensure effective operation.
    Water softeners can be equipped with programming timers that control resin recovery after a certain period of time programmed by the user (in days), resin recovery by volume / time, i.e. taking into account not only the time, but also the volume of water passed through the softener: after a given number of days or earlier, if the flow of filtered water has exceeded the saturation limit of the ion exchange resin.

    Column filters

    Excess iron not only gives the water a yellowish red color and an unpleasant metallic taste, but also leads to deposits in the pipes, which reduce their flow capacity and are often the cause of corrosion. Iron in drinking water leads to stains on taps, stains laundry, creating aesthetic and hygienic problems.

    Column filters remove excess amounts of iron and manganese salts from the water. Removal is carried out by oxidation of the water to be treated: hypochlorite is added to the water, oxidizing iron and manganese. Before passing through the filter, the water is fed into the reservoir, where it is kept for sufficient time for oxidation. After that, the water is fed through the autoclave to the filter-absorber, in which iron and manganese oxide fall out in the form of flocs, retained by the filtering layer. Loose flakes must be periodically removed by flushing the absorber filter with backflow of water. The frequency of flushing depends on the resistance to the passage of water created by the flocs. Ciclon filters are installed at the inlet and outlet of the filter-absorber to prevent accidental ingress of flocs into the water supply system. The choice of a specific model of the filter-absorber is determined by the required water consumption and the content of iron salts in it.

    Clarifying filter

    Water for food, hygiene and technological needs, coming from a water supply system or from an autonomous water intake, is often cloudy due to the content of sand and clay impurities. To solve these problems, you need to install clarifying filter, consisting of a column in which a multi-layer permanent filtering substrate of various granulometric composition is placed. To restore the filter’s performance and remove trapped impurities, automatic backwash is periodically performed. In case of strong turbidity of water, already filtered water is used for rinsing, which accumulates in a special tank.

    Neutralizing filters

    In some areas, especially mountainous, the water is characterized by a very low pH level, low hardness and a large excess of carbon dioxide.
    At the same time, corrosion and oxidation of elements of the water supply system is sharply accelerated, which can lead to damage to pipelines.
    In this case, neutralizing filters based on calcium carbonate are used..
    Neutralizing filters consist of a column containing an active mass of calcium carbonate, which increases the hardness and pH level of the water, bringing them to equilibrium values. Periodically, it is necessary to perform automatic (on command from the electronic timer) flushing of the active mass. The dimensions of the installation and the choice of a specific filter-neutralizer model depend on the required water flow.

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    Nitrate filter

    Nitrates in water come from the decomposition of nitrogen-containing substances of human and animal origin, and mainly from the overuse of nitrogen-based fertilizers in agriculture.
    Their use is becoming wider and more intensive, which leads to the appearance of high concentrations of nitrates in the aquifers of intensively developed agricultural zones. To reduce the concentration of nitrates, it is recommended to install nitrate absorber filter based on regenerable anionic resins with sodium chloride (table salt). These resins remove nitric acid anions from water, replacing them with chloride ions contained in a reducing solution (sodium chloride). Recovery is controlled by an electronic timer based on time and volume of treated water. Automatic recovery control ensures maximum reliability of nitrate removal.
    The choice of the size of the installation and the specific filter model is determined by the required water consumption and the concentration of nitrates in it..

    Magnetic filters

    Water in water supply networks always contains a certain amount of calcium and magnesium salts, which determine its hardness. When water is heated, a chemical reaction occurs, as a result of which calcium bicarbonate (scale) and carbon dioxide are formed.
    Since calcium bicarbonate is insoluble in water, it precipitates, forming deposits on the walls of pipelines and heat exchangers, and carbon dioxide leads to corrosion. In small domestic water supply systems, it is recommended to use simple means that do not require special regular maintenance and supervision by qualified personnel.

    Magnetic anti-scale filters recommended for drinking water treatment. Their installation is very simple thanks to the form with union nuts. They can be installed both at the entrance to the water supply network, and directly in front of boilers, boilers, washing machines and dishwashers. Anti-scale filter with permanent magnets for installation in front of wall-mounted boilers and small heat exchangers. The specially developed design allows the filter to be installed in hard-to-reach places, in confined spaces between the wall and the boiler, using union nuts.

    Flow inverters

    The water supplied to the heating system always contains a certain amount of calcium and magnesium salts. With an increase in temperature over time, these salts precipitate in the form of microcrystals and settle on the inner metal surfaces of pipes, heat exchanger coils. As a result, the throughput of the system decreases and the rate of the heat exchange process decreases. To restore the original performance of the equipment, it is necessary to clean them from deposits using special means and special equipment. Some models of descaling pumps are equipped with a FLOW INVERTER. This device is available in two versions: a manual inverter, which changes the direction of water flow depending on the position of the handle turned by the operator, and an automatic inverter, in which the operator’s role is reduced to programming the frequency of changing the direction of water flow and the total duration of flushing, and the flushing itself is performed completely offline.

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