- Normative documents
- Regulatory requirements for the placement of plumbing in the toilet and bathroom
- Recommendations for equipment placement, water supply to mixers, drain diameters
- Planning tips
- Left / right – how to properly supply cold and hot water to the mixer
- Recommendations for the selection of drain pipe diameters
For the plumbing equipment to work properly, it is important to correctly place it vertically and horizontally. To facilitate the design of plumbing fixtures, regulatory documents have been developed, in which most of the answers to these serious questions can be found..
In addition to the correct operation of plumbing equipment, the norms for its placement are aimed at ease of use – ergonomics, especially in cases where disabled or elderly people live in the house. For these categories, regulatory documents provide updated recommendations or requirements, including on the size of auxiliary rooms and the location of doors..
The main documents that are worth studying for planning and equipping a bathroom and toilet:
- SNiP 2.08.01–89.
- SNiP 2.04.01–85.
- SNiP 3.05.01–85.
- СН 478–80 (for wiring with plastic pipes).
- SP 40-103-98 and VSN 69-97 (when wiring with metal-polymer pipes).
- SP 40-102-2000 (when wiring with polymeric materials).
- SP 40-108-2004 (with copper piping).
The recommended distances when determining the place of installation of plumbing are indicated in SNiP 3.05.01–85. European and American standards (DIN and NKBA) almost coincide with Russian standards, and in the USA the heights are slightly higher, and in Asian countries, on the contrary, slightly lower.
Regulatory requirements for the placement of plumbing in the toilet and bathroom
The main document for placing plumbing is SNiP 3.05.01–85. He declares:
- the order of work;
- hole sizes when laying pipes through walls and ceilings;
- types of steel pipe connections;
- recommendations for pipe fixing;
- requirements for the installation height of plumbing equipment;
- test requirements.
Placing bathrooms and toilets above living quarters is not allowed. Above the kitchen, if necessary, in two-story houses and apartments – it is allowed.
The size of the toilet should not be less than 0.8×1.2 (WxD) m. For families with a disabled person, the dimensions of the premises cannot be less:
- toilet with washbasin – 1.6×2.2 m;
- bathroom or combined bathroom – 2.2×2.2 m.
The data on the installation height of the water intake fittings in private houses (from the axis of the fittings horizontally to the plumbing) are summarized in Table 1.
Installation Reference point Height Water-folding taps and mixers from the sides of the sink 250 mm from the side of the sink 200 mm from a clean floor 800 mm (for bath taps and bath mixers) Toilet taps and mixers from the side of the washbasin 200 mm from a clean floor 800 mm Shared bath and washbasin faucet from a clean floor to the top of the side 850 mm Mixers for viewers with oblique outlet 800 mm (equipment for emptying the vessel) Mixers for viewers with direct outlet 1000 mm (equipment for emptying the vessel) Shower faucets 1200 mm Shower mesh from the bottom edge from a clean floor or bottom of a pallet 2100-2200 mm (general use) 1700-1850 mm (for disabled people)
* When installing taps and mixers directly on the sink (sink), the installation height is determined by the design of the devices.
Installation of a bathtub and washbasin with a common mixer
Data on the height of the installation of drainage from sanitary appliances in private houses are summarized in Table 2.
Sanitary appliances Reference point Height from finished floor level, with an accuracy of ± 20 mm Washbasins to the top of the board 800 mm (average value, selected taking into account the height of family members) Sinks and sinks to the top of the board 850 mm (average value, selected taking into account the height of family members) Baths to the top of the board 600 mm Wall and trough urinals to the top of the board 650 mm (average value, selected taking into account the height of family members) Shower trays to the top of the board 400 mm Washer 600-700 mm Hanging type drinking fountains to the top of the board 900 mm Flush cistern of a high “English” toilet to the bottom of the tank 1 800 mm Toilet bowl 180-190 mm (from model) Wall-hung toilet 220-240 mm Toilet roll holder 600-700 mm, in relation to the toilet – in front of 200-300 mm
The data in this table are for guidance only. Most of the installation dimensions can be found in the factory mounting card for each model, which is accompanied by serious manufacturers. When planning the purchase of equipment, you need to study the available offers and their connection options. So, some manufacturers of toilet bowls provide several options for installing their equipment..
Permissible height deviations of free-standing devices – ± 20 mm, groups of the same type – ± 5 mm
Requirements for the installation of internal sewerage:
- sockets of fittings and pipes are mounted against the flow;
- the joints of cast-iron pipes are insulated with tarred hemp, caulked with cement mortar;
- it is advisable to mount the toilet bowl outlet directly to the drain pipe, in extreme cases – through a pipe (cast iron, PE) or a coupling (rubber);
- when installing a toilet with a direct outlet, the socket of the outlet pipe is installed flush with the floor;
- installation of the toilet is permissible with screws (with a rubber gasket under the base) or glue;
- the flush pipe of the urinal tray is installed at a 45 ° angle, down towards the wall.
Installation of a side-mounted toilet frame with a hidden cistern and bidet
SNiP 2.08.01–89 and departmental norms standardize the minimum, maximum or optimal horizontal dimensions when the plumbing equipment is located:
- between the bidet and the toilet – at least 0.25 m, but not so far as to reduce ergonomics – no more than 0.45 m;
- there should be an open space in front of the toilet, bidet – from 0.6 m;
- on both sides of the toilet, bidet there should be free space – from 0.25 m;
- in front of the bathroom, shower, there should be an open space – from 0.7 m;
- in front of the washbasin, the free area should be WxD – not less than 0.7×1.1 m, when the washbasin is located in a niche – not less than 0.7×0.95 m;
- the recommended distance from the bath / cabin to the washbasin is 0.3 m;
- the recommended distance from the bath / cabin to the heated towel rail is 0.5–0.4 m.
Optimal placement of the washbasin and mirror
Recommendations for equipment placement, water supply to mixers, drain diameters
At the construction design stage, you need to think about the number of bathrooms – toilets and bathrooms, for the correct placement of risers and taking into account loads. If the house is large and guest rooms are planned, or several generations of the family live in the house – parents, children, grandchildren, then it makes sense to organize more than one bathroom. The guest can only contain a toilet and a washbasin, the master bathrooms are additionally equipped with a bath or shower.
A lot of useful information on the installation of plumbing and ready-made layouts for various occasions can be found in Ernst Neufert’s encyclopedia “Building design”. This will be especially useful for those who do not have significant areas of the bathroom and toilet..
When placing equipment, sometimes you just need to rely on common sense. So, in most cases, the bathtub is located along one of the walls or in the corner, but if the area permits, you can install it as an island by performing the wiring in a hidden channel in the floor or in a floor box. The minimum bathroom area dictates the installation of a corner shower or sitz bath. When designing a bathroom with natural light, you need to take into account the size, placement and type of glazing of the window..
The longer the bath, the shallower it can be
The mirror is usually installed above the washbasin. If the mirror is located on the cabinet door, it must be located above the top of the mixer outlet. When installing two freestanding washbasins in the room, the distance between them should not be less than 90 cm, otherwise the simultaneous use will be difficult. At the same time, a heated towel rail or a towel holder can be conveniently placed between washstands.
Consider the presence of shelves and cabinets, a washing machine, a basket for dirty laundry, an outlet for outlets (if necessary). The bathroom can be very functional even in small sizes.
Bathroom and toilet layout
Planning of the combined bathroom
Bathroom layout example
Economical arrangement of corner shelves and washbasin
Left / right – how to properly supply cold and hot water to the mixer
Traditionally, the water supply to the faucets is carried out on the basis of right-handed people and taking into account the fact that the cold water tap is used more often: on the right – cold water, on the left – hot. In addition, such an arrangement is safer for right-handed children – there is less risk of accidentally scalding with hot water (note to parents whose children are left-handed!).
And yet, in most cases, such an arrangement is a matter of habit, especially if the inlets are made with flexible hoses. However, for faucets with a thermostat, the correct connection is imperative, otherwise they will not work. Some manufacturers equip their models with replaceable thermostatic cartridges, which allows you to “switch” an incorrectly connected mixer without dismantling the installation with hidden wiring.
Recommendations for the selection of drain pipe diameters
For correct drainage, the diameters of the sewer drains must correspond to the drain flow rate or the connecting diameters from the plumbing equipment. Data on the minimum diameters of the drain pipes are given in table 3.
Equipment Diameter Note, explanation From the washing machine 32 mm with open siphon 40 mm with closed siphon maximum filling – no more than 2/3 of the drain diameter From the washbasin 40 mm sink siphon – Ø 32 mm From the shower ladder 50–75 mm from the shower capacity From the bath and shower 50 mm bath siphon, cabins – Ø 40 mm From the toilet 110 mm
When installing the sewage system, you need to remember the recommended slopes for the correct operation of the system.