Overview of varnishes: alkyd, water-dispersion, acrylic and others

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The range of varnishes on the construction market is increasing every day. If once we could only purchase colored stains in a glass bottle, now even specialists can get confused in the classification. Our article will help you understand the variety of varnishes and make the right choice..

Overview of varnishes: alkyd, water-dispersion, acrylic and others

Paints and varnishes are one of the most numerous “families” of the construction market. Among them, film-forming protective compounds – varnishes.

The progenitor of varnish coatings was shellac, obtained from the secretions of parasitic insects that live in huge numbers on some tree species in India and Thailand. Subsequently, the term “varnish” was used to refer to the class of transparent impregnations, which give additional strength to the surface and preserve its texture..

Varnishes are classified according to the type of film-forming element:

Varnish type Example Main areas of application Features:
Alkyd-acrylic “Pinotex”, “Aquatex”, “Teksturol” To protect wood from mold, dampness and mildew Virtually no smell when applied
Polyacrylate AK-156 Corrosion protection at temperatures from -50 ° C to +170 ° C Can be used as a base for subsequent enamel application
Alkyd urethane Parquet and yacht varnishes Wood surfaces in high humidity conditions High wear resistance
Bituminous BT-577 Wooden and metal structures It is used to protect pipelines
Glyphthalic GF-166 Applied over oil paints Added to the primer for anti-corrosion protection of ferrous metal
Silicon-organic KO-174 Corrosion protection at high temperatures High frost resistance and heat resistance (up to +400 ° С)
Oil MA-592 Mainly used for special purposes – decorative multi-layer coatings and for hot-drying applications By percentage, oils are divided into lean (less than 20%), medium (up to 30%), oily (up to 40%)
Urea MCh-52 Furniture and floor covering Multi-component mixtures
Nitrocellulose NTs-221 Multi-layer protective coating for wooden furniture The film can be sanded
Pentaphthalic PF-283 For furniture and joinery Used as a base for the production of enamels
Alcoholic compounds (polishes) shellac Priming the wood surface after sanding Provides water repellent properties
Perchlorovinyl Teksol – polymer varnish Temporary metal coating Resistant to aggressive media – acids, alkalis and oils
Vinyl chloride XC-511 Wood board coating Forms an elastic film
Epoxy EP-2146 For interior work Two-component
Epoxy ester formulations EF-065, EF-1144 Waterproof and anti-corrosion coating for wood and metal Suitable for decks, building roofs, car paint
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Overview of varnishes: alkyd, water-dispersion, acrylic and others

According to the type of application, varnishes are divided into household and industrial, according to their composition – into one-, two- and multicomponent, according to packaging – into liquid and aerosol, according to the scope – for indoor and outdoor work, according to texture – into glossy, semi-matte and matte.

With all the variety, most of the above varnishes are considered highly specialized and are rarely used in everyday life..

The use of varnishes. Manufacturers, characteristics

The most common varnishes are for wood. Most hardware stores do not please with a huge assortment of varnishes, offering several classic options for wood: for baths and saunas, parquet, yacht, furniture. Such varnishes can be either water-based (acrylic), or with the addition of resins (alkyd-urethane, alkyd). As a rule, they do not change, but only emphasize the natural texture of the wood, giving it additional protection..

Overview of varnishes: alkyd, water-dispersion, acrylic and others

The main parameter of choice – the saturation of the varnish – directly affects the price: the stronger the gloss, the more expensive the varnish.

Varnish Application Manufacturers Composition Cost, 1 l / rub.
Water Baths and saunas “Senezh” Acrylic 292
“Neomid” Acrylic 222
Yacht Outdoor work “Belinka” Alkyd 375
“Neomid” Alkyd urethane 244.40
Rogneda (Eurotex) Alkyd urethane 256-270
“ColoricaTex” Alkyd urethane 152-176
Parquet Internal works “Belinka” Acrylic resins, water 397.50
“Neomid” Alkyd urethane 263
“Rogneda” Alkyd urethane 254
“ColoricaTex” Alkyd urethane 132-170
Furniture PF-283 Interior works, furniture “ColoricaTex” Alkyd 110

When choosing a varnish, try to focus on time-tested manufacturers – Belinka, Ekspertekologiya (TM Neomid), Smolensk paint and varnish plant (KolorikaTex), Rogneda (Eurotex) and Senezh have proven themselves well. Do not be tempted by the low price – low-quality resins, evaporating when dried, can cause significant harm to health.

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Overview of varnishes: alkyd, water-dispersion, acrylic and others

Advice: Study the varnish label carefully, paying particular attention to the drying time. The faster the varnish dries, the more solvents it contains. For interior work, it is better to select water-based products, they do not have a pungent odor and can be used in residential premises.

Important: As a standard, the varnish is applied in three coats on a dry and clean surface. The starting layer can be absorbed in just a few minutes (the speed depends on the properties of the wood), the subsequent ones require a longer time.

Specialized household varnishes

Along with classical varnishes for wood, special-purpose compounds are increasingly used.

Bitumen varnish

Composition and application:It is made on the basis of petroleum bitumen, resins, antiseptics, corrosion inhibitors and organic solvents. It is an unsurpassed anti-corrosion and protective agent for all surfaces. Often used as waterproofing impregnation and primer adhesive for bituminous roofing materials.

Overview of varnishes: alkyd, water-dispersion, acrylic and others

Features and safety measures:It is flammable and quite toxic, so all work must be carried out only outdoors or in well-ventilated areas. Since bitumen varnish is very sticky, additional protection of exposed skin is needed.

Lacquer on stone and brick

Composition and application:It is produced on the basis of acrylic copolymers, synthetic resins with the addition of plasticizers and organic solvents. Suitable for varnishing natural and artificial stone, plastered surfaces, concrete and bricks. At the same time it serves as a water repellent, protecting surfaces from the appearance of mold and mildew. Gives a “wet stone effect”.

Overview of varnishes: alkyd, water-dispersion, acrylic and others

Features and safety measures:Reduces surface delamination, clogs pores in concrete and stone, reducing dust formation. It is recommended to use a respirator when applying.

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Some helpful tips

At the end of the article, as always, here are some tips on how to choose quality products that will not harm your health:

  1. Nitrocellulose varnishes, known as quick-drying or NC varnishes, widespread in Soviet times, are extremely flammable and toxic. Their production is officially prohibited in Europe..
  2. When choosing any paint and varnish product, be extremely careful and careful. Even high quality ingredients can cause allergic reactions and headaches, not to mention counterfeit products..
  3. Study the label meticulously: a conscientious manufacturer accurately indicates the composition, avoiding general wording (“only natural substances”, “environmentally friendly additives”). The more solvents in the composition, the richer the smell of varnish will be.
  4. Under no circumstances buy pigmented varnishes containing dyes based on heavy metals (zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium).

Overview of varnishes: alkyd, water-dispersion, acrylic and others

When working with varnish, do not forget about safety measures: use a respirator and gloves and ventilate the area well. Happy renovation!

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