- Single-level ceiling
- Perimeter markings
- Assembling the frame
- Setting up a start profile
- Installation of supporting profiles
- We fix the suspensions
- We expose the frame profiles in a single plane
- We install jumpers
- We sheathe the frame with plasterboard
- Multilevel plasterboard ceiling
The article describes the rules for installing a gypsum plasterboard suspended ceiling. We tried to make a simple technological map, where close attention is paid to the most difficult moments for beginners.
Almost no renovation is now complete without creating suspended ceilings. Among all the available cladding options, drywall proved to be the most practical and functional. Using gypsum plasterboard systems, the developer has the opportunity to align the ceiling with any existing curvatures, to conduct electrical wiring cables, air ducts and other communications in the space between the ceiling, and to decorate the room with complex spatial forms.
The technology of lining the ceiling in one level has many similarities with plasterboard wall cladding, the same metal profile is used here, the same installation principles are based on. But there are also many differences, we will try not to lose sight of them.
Simple cladding in one tier is used very often, but even if you plan to make a multi-level structure, you first need to make a flat ceiling for the whole room, which will serve as the basis for further add-ons. It rarely happens that basic stitching is not needed, or it is logical to make it not continuous.
What to do first: walls or ceiling? It is better to deal with the ceiling after the rough finishing of the walls (cladding, plaster), then it is much easier to mark and install a more complex and demanding system in terms of the quality of the plane, which is a suspended ceiling made of plasterboard. Before starting work on the frame, you should perform some preparatory operations:
- Develop drawings of the future complex ceiling and decide on the layout of all sheets and profiles (how the frame is assembled, we will tell you later).
- Clean the base from crumbling elements, close up the joints between the plates.
- Mark the locations of the lighting fixtures and route the cables to the terminal points.
- Completely free the premises from building materials.
- Assemble the platform with a total horizontal surface area of at least 3 m2 (like a standard sheet).
Our task is to mark on the walls the lines along which we will install the starting profile UD-27. It will not work to mark a horizontal level immediately under the ceiling – it is too inconvenient, so at an acceptable height (1.5-1.8 m) we will make a control perimeter.
Using a laser plane or a hydro level (transparent hose filled with water), in each corner of the room, with a pencil, we put marks that should be in one, strictly horizontal plane. Each wall should have at least two risks, but we recommend putting one intermediate mark in the middle of the walls. It is not necessary to connect them with a chop cord, but some craftsmen prefer to have solid lines..
Using a tape measure, at different points, measure the distance from the control perimeter (from the resulting lines or lines) to the supporting ceiling. Where this distance will be the smallest – the lowest point of the base is located, from here we will mark the working perimeter. If it is necessary to press against the ceiling as much as possible so as not to “eat up” the height of the room by the frame, then we retreat from the base 40 mm (27 mm – UD, 13 mm – stock) and put it at risk. We measure the distance from the risks to the control perimeter. Now, at this distance from the control perimeter, we put other marks (we place them in the corners and in the centers of the walls – similar to the control ones). Under the ceiling with a chopping cord, from corner to corner, draw lines. If you transferred everything and recaptured correctly, then the lines will coincide with the intermediate marks located in the centers of the walls.
Suppose the height of the room is 2.7 meters, we made the control perimeter 1.7 meters from the floor. Measurements showed that we have 1 meter to the most clamped place on the ceiling, minus 40 mm to install the profile – we get 96 cm.As a result, all marks of the working perimeter should be at a distance of 96 cm from the control perimeter.
Please note that in this way we inspect the rough ceiling only near the walls, but sometimes it happens that in the middle of the room there is a “belly” on the ceiling or a “tooth” along the line of joining the plates. You can identify the problem at an early stage using a rule or by pulling the cord in the plane of the working perimeter (a gap of at least 35–40 mm is required between the thread and the ceiling). If such drops are found, we lower the entire perimeter below. Also, when marking the perimeter, one should take into account the thickness of the corrugated channel for wires, which can interfere with the alignment of the frame in the plane.
Assembling the frame
Setting up a start profile
The UD-27 profile (hereinafter referred to as UD) is cut along the length of each wall and, inserting one to one at the corners, we mount it one by one on the working perimeter. UD is drilled to mineral walls with dowels 6×40 or 6×60 with an interval of 40-50 cm, to structures finished with a steel frame – through facing to profiles, with metal screws 25-35 mm long. At the joints of two UD profiles, we must install fasteners.
When installing a starter profile, there are two very important points:
- Do not cover the lines of the working perimeter with a profile, place it with a touch to the colored skipping.
- When fixing the UD to the walls, do not focus only on the line – after nailing the edges of the profile, be sure to attach a long rule to it from below, and then attach further.
Installation of supporting profiles
The supporting element of the subsystem is the CD-60 profiles (hereinafter referred to as CD), on which the long sides of the gypsum board with thinned edges are joined, in which the reinforcing tape is then laid.
If it is allowed to install racks on the walls with an interval of 60 cm, then for the ceiling the normal distance is 40 centimeters. The direction relative to the window / light along which the GKL panels and, accordingly, the CD profiles will be located, does not matter, but it is much easier to work with shorter profiles and sheets, therefore we recommend building the ceiling along the walls of the room that are shorter in length.
On the starting profiles of the long walls, we mark the location of the CD. We start with the central house, which will become the joining for the first sheet – we retreat from one of the short walls 1150 mm (the width of the sheet with the cut off thinned edge) and put it at risk. From this risk, on a tape measure with an interval of 40 cm, we put more marks in both directions. We do this on both long walls.
Now we measure the length of each CD (we put the tape of the tape according to the corresponding marks) – in 99% of cases the sizes of the profiles will differ. Each bearing profile should be 5-7 mm shorter than the distance between the walls along the line of its installation.
The CD is cut to size with scissors, inserted into the UD and placed in the design position – the risk must coincide with the center of the profile. The supporting element is fixed in the starting element using a self-tapping screw LN 3.5×9 mm. Be sure to check the distance between the profiles along the axes with a tape measure – the standard is 1200 mm, along the width of the sheets.
If the width of the room exceeds 4 meters, then the CD will have to be spliced using a connecting element. Elongated profiles are installed on the ceiling so that the ends with the joint are staggered.
Attention! CD with a length of more than 4.5 m should be installed on the ceiling after mounting the suspensions.
Often, flush-mounted lamps are placed in the false ceiling, so that during installation they do not fall on the metal of the subsystem, it is necessary to adjust the location of the central center, or consider a slight transfer of lighting devices.
We fix the suspensions
In most cases, ordinary perforated brackets are suitable for the ceiling, but if the frame needs to be significantly lowered, then you can use adjustable fasteners with a hairpin or elongated U-shaped elements.
We place the hangers behind the CP profile, mark the points for drilling with a pencil – the two extreme lugs. Between themselves, “peshki” are placed at intervals of 50–70 cm, it is better if they form even lines (this will help us to set the plane).
With a punch with a drill 160 mm long, we make holes 40–45 mm deep and fix the brackets to the main ceiling with dowels 6×40.
The option, when the suspensions are installed before fixing the CP, is advisable to use only if the bearing profiles are too long and sag too much.
We expose the frame profiles in a single plane
We described this stage of work in detail in the last article dedicated to false walls from GCR. The procedure is as follows:
- We press the CD to the rough ceiling and fix them in the bracket with nails or long screws.
- Across the profiles, near the line of suspensions from UD to UD, we fix the thread (you need to pull it very tightly to minimize its sagging).
- We release the bearing profiles one by one, set them in a millimeter from the cord, scroll through the suspension with two LN self-tapping screws on each side.
- We repeat these operations along all lines of straight suspensions..
Pay attention to two important points:
- Do not squeeze the cord with profiles.
- As the frame is positioned relative to the thread, regularly check your work with the rule, drive it along the central hall, across and along the diagonals.
We install jumpers
At this point, we must clearly understand where we have each sheet, it is best to make a simple drawing with the layout of the panels. Now we need to mount jumper profiles under the short joints of the sheets. It is necessary to apply crabs, single corner connectors, or UD segments.
Please note that GKL sheets must be placed with a gap of joints of at least 400 mm.
A very important nuance. If we are installing a multi-tiered ceiling, then for the assembly of the next level (so that the superstructures are attached to the metal), jumpers should be added in some places (along the contour of the lower level). For example, when making rectangular boxes, it is necessary to collect a “ladder” between the extreme CD and the nearby UD.
We sheathe the frame with plasterboard
Ceiling drywall is 9.5 mm thick, but many installers use more rigid 12.5 mm thick wall panels for this, often even moisture-resistant drywall (if the neighbors from above have a habit of pouring). In order to sew up the frame with sheets, the participation of at least two people is necessary, for beginners it is better if three work: two – cut the gypsum board, serve and hold the sheets, the third – wraps them on the profiles.
We fix the panels with self-tapping screws for metal 25 mm long, screw them in until the cap disappears from the plane. Be careful not to tear through the lining paper with the fasteners. The pitch of the self-tapping screws is from 150 to 200 mm (on the short side – about 75 mm), on adjacent sheets they should be separated by 30-50 mm. First, we recommend that you sew on whole sheets according to the layout, and then insert and fix the trim.
If we are facing a simple single-level ceiling, then the panels are adjusted to the walls almost close – we leave a gap of several millimeters. In the case of a multi-tiered ceiling, you can bring drywall just 10-15 cm behind the projection of the lower tier.
At the joints of sheets that are not pasted over with cardboard, we remove a chamfer with a knife, its parameters are an angle of 22 degrees, a depth of 2/3 of the panel thickness, a width of about one and a half centimeters. A similar cutting of the seams is necessary so that the drywall putty has a sufficient layer on the short joints of the sheets.
Multilevel plasterboard ceiling
As we have already said, the base for a multi-tiered ceiling is a conventional flat design. In the overwhelming majority of cases, the second and subsequent levels are much smaller in area than the main one, so the starting plane is assembled almost completely (only the sheets are not tightly fitted to the walls). Sometimes it happens that the superstructures take up a large area, then, to save materials, the first level is made incomplete – it looks like several islands.
In any case, we begin work on the second level by marking its contour on the plane of the main ceiling. Here, depending on the configuration of the superstructure, it is necessary to apply a square, a rule and a chopping cord, or improvised compasses.
Now on the wall from the main ceiling we retreat the specified distance (the height of the second level). Usually the superstructure is made with a height of 50 to 120 cm, but when setting the marks, do not forget that the profile will be sheathed with plasterboard, and this is +12.5 mm to the side height. In order not to assemble complex structures from various frame elements, we suggest using starting profiles as a side for superstructures. Most often, craftsmen use UD and get a “standard” board up to 45 mm high – this is 27 mm (profile) + 12.5 mm (gypsum board) + 3 mm (perforated corner). However, it is also possible to work with UW starter pillars with a width of 50, 75, 100 mm and have at the exit the sides with a height of approximately 65, 80, 115 mm, respectively. For higher levels, a construction of two UD and a strip of gypsum is used.
So, we fix the starting profile along the contour of the second tier on the ceiling, direct the U-profile shelves towards the walls. If our superstructure has a curvilinear shape, then the starting profile, whatever we use, we cut it into sectors of 4-5 cm with scissors (it turns out a “snake”).
We fix it with self-tapping screws for metal through one of the shelves. The screw must be screwed into the frame profile of the first level. Remember, we collected ladders for this and put additional jumpers? But, as an option, the extreme CD of the base level can be set along the edge of the box, for example, moved away from the wall by 50 cm and all other profiles can be placed from it.
Attention! To make the board rigidly fixed, twist the screw closer to the inner corner of the profile. Use a long bat.
We fix the UD profile on the wall, creating another perimeter. This profile is placed either almost close to the first level, or drops below – it all depends on the design board height. The fixing technique does not differ from the installation of the perimeter for the first level.
Now it is necessary to install CD-profiles from the perimeter UD to the side of the second level. Their basic step between each other is 40 cm, but when laying out the metal, it is necessary to take into account the location of the recessed lamps. The length of these CDs for rectangular superstructures will be cyclical or the same for the whole room, but for curved structures, each profile will have to be measured individually.
We insert the CD into the starting perimeter profile and inside the side profile. We fix the metal relative to each other with 9 mm LN self-tapping screws, first near the wall, and then on board. When we fasten the CP to the side shelf, it serves as a spacer, that is, the side with the help of the CP can be set strictly vertically. To check the quality of installation of rectilinear structures, apply a rule to the board or pull a thread near it, you can check the curved structure by placing a square between the skin of the first level and the board.
When the CDs are placed in their places, on the main ceiling or on the profiles of the first level, we fix straight suspensions and along the threads, or, according to the rule, set the metal of the second level in one plane.
If the details of the second level mate with each other end-to-end, then the installation of the profile is carried out “through gypsum” – about the technology of creating internal corners from gypsum plasterboard, see the article “Plasterboard walls”.
Now you can massively sheathe the frame with drywall. What to cover in the first place, a board or a common plane, is not important, most often they start with a vertical strip. It is twisted with the same 25 mm self-tapping screws with an interval of 150 mm, for curved products – gypsum strips are fixed more often, from 50 to 70 mm.
Horizontal filing should be done from the corners of the room, and then move to the centers of the walls. To avoid cracks, avoid joining the sheets in the corner area, always cover both sides of the superstructure with one piece. For example, for straight boxes this element always looks like a “boot”.
Do not try to make GKL blanks exactly along the contour of the frame, practice shows that it is better to leave an allowance of 3-4 cm and, after screwing the sheets to the metal, cut off the excess with a knife or saw (curved structures) and process the end with a plane.
If, according to the project, the superstructure is to have a niche for hidden lighting, then the lower horizontal sheet is extended overboard to the required distance of 50–100 mm, and this overhang is trimmed so as to repeat the contour of the second level. At the edge of the overhang, a UD is mounted, facing upwards with shelves (straight or “snake”), a frontal strip 50–70 mm wide is screwed to it.
We have considered the first and second tiers, but any subsequent tiers will be mounted using the same technology. This is a basic “instruction” for installing a ceiling made of gypsum plasterboard, it is unrealistic to reveal the nuances of all possible designs in one article. However, if you grasp the principle of assembling the frames and understand how to sheathe them correctly, then you can easily make a ceiling of any complexity, just treat the plasterboard system as a designer.