- Method of making interior doors
- Materials for doors
- Finishing of interior doors made of wood
- Interior door manufacturing technologies
- Prices for wooden interior doors
One of the decorations of a modern apartment is interior doors. In this sense, the modern market simply pampers and pleases the eye. Wooden, all-glass, aluminum, plastic, combined – choose what your heart desires. As practice shows, wooden doors are most often chosen. It is understandable, the material is some kind of “home”, natural, warm, inspires confidence. Although not without its own whims. Some knowledge of the “wooden” features will not hurt.
Method of making interior doors
According to the manufacturing method, “classic” doors are divided into panel and panel doors.
Panel doors – the most ancient and also the easiest to manufacture. Structurally, the product consists of a frame sheathed on both sides with some material. Typically, the inside of this frame contains filler (monolithic or honeycomb). Monolithic filling makes the door considerably heavier. It may look like a shield made of wooden bars, which is optimal from the standpoint of environmental friendliness and sound insulation. But sheet material is also possible – chipboard, MDF. Honeycomb filling can significantly reduce the weight of the door leaf, since it is a honeycomb structure made of pressed cardboard or MDF.
Panel doors can be blind and partially glazed. Moreover, “glazing” most often plays a decorative role and is performed in the form of artistic inserts of glass, crystal, multi-colored plastic. The panel door cladding itself can also be decorated and made of molded plastic, sheet fiberboard (hardboard), MDF – and from anything, up to plates of natural stone. The cost of a panel door is almost entirely determined by its finish.
Paneled door – its canvas is a wooden frame, which consists of a strapping (main bars) and midships (bars that divide the door leaf into parts and connect the strapping bars). Internal frame openings are filled with inserts of paneled panels (panels), glass or their combination. The number of mullions determines the number of paneled inserts. Panels and glass are fixed in one of two main ways: directly into the strapping or through an intermediate frame. In any case, the panel should retain “freedom of movement” in the grooves of the strapping and midships. Often, the junction of the panels and glass with trim elements and mullions is closed with so-called glazing beads, and to decorate large glass surfaces, beads and layouts are used. These elements are made of wood, plastic, MDF, can be decorated with veneer, painted, laminated, etc..
Paneled doors are comparatively lightweight and sound insulated. A paneled door is much more difficult to manufacture, but thanks to the design features in its design, any design ideas can be realized. Due to the complexity of manufacture and representative appearance, such products are traditionally referred to as goods of a prestigious level. That is why the market offers significantly more paneled doors than panel doors..
Materials for doors
Chipboard, MDF, fiberboard – these derivatives of wood are today quite often used in the manufacture of doors. These materials are made from wood pulp. MDF is a material of modern technologies that does not contain phenolic resins and therefore does not emit harmful phenols. It is not subject to cracking, practically does not swell, it is technologically advanced in processing, veneer and wood are perfectly glued to it. In terms of manufacturing technology, this material is close to fiberboard, but in this case, the binder of the pulp is its own wood resin, released during hot pressing. Chipboard is also widely used in door production, most of the Spanish models are made from this material. Chipboard allows you to make the whole process of creating doors extremely technologically advanced and cheap.
Natural array – solid wood doors are considered to be the best. And this is true, but with a caveat: if these are high-quality products, made of well-dried wood (which sometimes takes several years) and without knots. The absence of knots in the door frame is especially important. Otherwise, it will deform after a while, and the door will stop closing..
Glued solid wood – today it acts as an alternative to natural massif (it is also called typesetting, re-glued). A door made of glued wood will not lead, it will not dry out and will not swell. It can also be installed in bathrooms, which cannot be said about doors from an ordinary solid wood, no matter what varnish you cover them.
The re-glued solid wood is made of ordinary dried wood, previously disassembled into small pieces – lamellas. Defective areas and knots are cut out of them, after which the lamellas are glued together into a “microthorn”. In this way, blanks of the required dimensions are obtained, which are then glued into bars. As a result, internal stresses in the wood are relieved. Most high quality classic doors (and frames) are made of this kind of “glued” wood.
Domestic, as well as Finnish, Lithuanian, Swedish manufacturers most often use solid pine, for high-quality doors – solid beech and oak. Italian people often use alder, walnut, cherry, sweet cherry. Not so long ago, doors from glued bamboo appeared, which are not afraid of water or fire and have a very interesting texture..
Veneer – the outer surfaces of door leaves and frames are usually veneered with precious wood veneers. The quality of veneer facing is greatly influenced by material compatibility – veneer adheres well either to “native” wood (for example, oak veneer to oak), or, in the case of different types of wood, to a backing made of another material (MDF, plywood). It is useless to glue oak veneer to pine or birch – it will not “take root” and over time will begin to crack or flake off. Perfect attachment of the veneer to the edges of the door leaf is especially important.
Finishing of interior doors made of wood
The variety of panels or glass inserts used in the door leaf, their type and shape allow you to create various variations of design solutions. As for the glass itself, the countless fantasies on the theme of its traditional types (corrugated, matte, colored, stained glass) are truly impressive. Spectacular insects, flowers, fish can be placed in the inner volume of synthetic glass.
Italian doors (like Italian furniture) rightfully occupy leading positions not only in our country, but also in the world. What do you want? They have been doing this for several centuries. For example, doors are made there from wood, the age of which is not known for certain. Representatives of factories travel all over the world and collect old beams and other pieces of wood, which are then specially processed and restored, painted by hand with paints according to old recipes and drawings. Such doors are as impressive as their price. Much cheaper than doors made of artificially aged wood, often also with artistic painting.
In addition to aging, leafs and door frames made of natural and glued solid wood (as well as combined ones, there is no difference here) can be painted, tinted, covered with film materials and veneered with valuable wood species. The most common veneer options today are tanganika (specially tinted walnut), national walnut, cherry. Sometimes the veneer is additionally tinted or bleached (maple, oak). The “highlight”, for example, of Spanish doors is mahogany veneer, Finnish doors – birch.
Interior door manufacturing technologies
The tree is sensitive to moisture fluctuations. Therefore, before “going to work”, the wood must undergo forced drying to a residual moisture content not exceeding 8%. The properties of the obtained wood material strongly depend on the wood drying technology. For example, there are technologies in which hardwood (for example, oak) is dried for 47 days with four steaming times. The material is steamed in order to achieve a strictly uniform release of internal stresses and guaranteed to avoid cracking of the workpieces. In the old days, wood was kept for several years in a dry, cool room, excluding direct sunlight. Today, modern drying chambers significantly speed up this process. But accelerated drying does not give a complete guarantee that the wood will not begin to bend or crack in the future..
Insufficiently dried wood, as well as temperature and humidity changes in the room, cause internal stresses in the door and, as a result, their deformation – cracking, warping and resizing of the door. That is why for some expensive imported models it is necessary to constantly maintain almost “greenhouse” conditions in the room with temperature and humidity fluctuations of no more than 8%.
Usually the finished door leaf is offered for installation in the opening together with the door frame, which is made, as a rule, using the same technology and from the same materials as the door frame. Technological articulation of the opening and the box is closed by platbands, which are the most important design element and are made of wood, MDF, can be painted, tinted, covered with fine wood veneer.
Interior doors are made without a sill. Bathroom doors can be supplied with a threshold, although models without a threshold are applicable in most modern apartments. For bathrooms, the layout usually provides openings that are smaller in height and narrower than in other rooms. Therefore, if you want to install the same doors throughout the apartment, you will have to look for models in the dimensional lines of which there are canvases and under such an opening. Or you have to shorten the canvas. Just keep in mind that honeycomb doors are poorly suited for this. As for the applicability of doors in “wet” rooms, even veneered models are suitable for this. True, provided that all end surfaces are covered with veneer and well finished with waterproof varnish. When buying an imported bathroom door, you can focus on the pentagram icons in catalogs.
Prices for wooden interior doors
The undisputed sales leader are paneled swing doors. As a rule, each model is offered in both solid and glazed versions. As for the prices for these models, the most inexpensive products (up to $ 300) are offered by Russian and Spanish manufacturers. Paneled doors costing $ 300-1000 are already a fairly wide range of proposals, both in materials and technologies. This range includes products from most foreign manufacturers. There are doors entirely made of solid coniferous or valuable wood species (mahogany, oak, beech, cherry, walnut, ash, alder), models with figured panels and glass, doors with inlaid with highly artistic carvings.
There are significantly fewer panel door models than paneled doors, but, nevertheless, they are not in vogue. Among panel doors, veneered and painted are the leaders. Due to the design features, it is panel models that are most often inlaid with veneer. In addition, their panels are often decorated with various polyester compositions, decorated with window inserts.
Russian factories produce lightweight economy-class doors (up to $ 100) with a molded outer panel and honeycomb filling. Several Austrian, German and Russian companies specialize in the production of painted panel products with decorative inserts made of glass and colored plastic. Traditionally, there is a wide range of offers from Italian manufacturers – almost all Italian factories produce a considerable number of panel doors with a wide variety of designs of leaves, frames and frames. If you are not ready to buy an Italian prototype for $ 1000, you are offered a domestic analogue for $ 350-500. As they say, there is a choice.
Before buying a solid wood door, call a master – a representative of the company – to your home. Only he will be able to say for sure whether the opening is suitable, how much its expansion will cost, whether the wall will withstand the load and whether it is possible to insert this door into this opening at all.