Any small-sized roofing materials should be overlapped. The following types of overlap are used in works on the roof of a house: double overlap, which provides a roof covering in two or even three layers; single overlap, which gives the roof covering in one layer.
We form a double overlap with slate, flat tape tiles and other flat materials of piece types. With double overlap, the number of overlap layers depends on the size of the overlap: the overlying rows should overlap the lower rows by more than half the length of the tile piece material.
The tiles are fastened to the crate with staples, nails, wire, clamps. These fasteners are passed through the holes in the tiles. Sometimes they just hold onto their own weight. Tape flat tiles are usually fastened with clamps or nailed. Already attached tiles, a horizontal cleat lapel lies on top. An adjacent tile rests under the vertical flap..
Clamp hooks from the attic side are nailed to the roof sheathing. The flaps of the clamps should be closed with the shingles placed above them. All shingles located on the gable and cornice overhangs, as well as on the ridge and on the edges of the roof are fastened with wire. Tiles, which are located at the pediment and at the cornice, can be fixed with special brackets. On roofs with a large slope (35-45?), As well as on roofs that are located in areas of strong wind loads, the tiles need to be bandaged in one row. If the roof slope is more than 45?, Then each tile must be fixed with wire.
The arrangement of the tile tiles can be represented as an overlap pattern. In such a pattern, adjacent rows of tiles are tied in the same way as bricks are tied in the masonry of a wall in adjacent rows: the joint of a pair of tiles of one row falls in the middle of the tiles of the row below. To achieve this arrangement, odd rows should start and end with whole tiles, and all even rows must be supplied with half tiles at the beginning and end. The tiles must be laid from bottom to top – from the eaves to the ridge. The grooved tiles are laid in rows from right to left. Grooved shingles – from left to right. Flat tiles can be laid out starting from any gable – both right and left.
The tiles are laid simultaneously in 3-4 rows. In this case, a certain sequence must be observed. First, in the row that adjoins the eaves of the roof, you need to put two whole tiles from the initial pediment. In the second row, an overlap is placed (that is, so that the tiles of the second row overlap with the tiles of the first row) from the beginning of the pediment, first a half tile, then a whole one. One whole tile is placed in the third row. Next, you need to go back to the first row and lay out another whole tile. Also, a whole tile is added to all rows already started (in this case, to the second and third row). After the first (very initial) tiles in the first to third rows have been started and the second tiles have been added one tile at a time, you can start adding the 4th row. In the fourth row they put, again, one half-piece (as for all even rows) and one whole tile. Then one whole tile is placed in the 5th row. Then again you need to return to the first row and add one whole tile to all the started rows – from the first to the fifth inclusive. Thus, we have such a ladder of rows of tiles formed, which gradually covers the roof to its entire height – from the cornice to the ridge itself. The ridge must be covered with a ridge tile..
To make the load on the walls of the house from the roof more even, it is recommended to lay the tiles simultaneously on both roof slopes: lay out 2-4 rows of tiles on one roof slope, then the same amount on the second. For greater protection of the tiled roof, it is highly recommended to coat the transverse joints of the tiles with lime mortar from the side of the attic or attic space 2-4 months after the erection of the roof. Also, fibrous materials should be added to the solution. For example, tow or chop. From above, the tiles will need to be coated with oil paint..
When covering roof slopes, the tiles must be laid in different ways depending on the shape of the tiles themselves. Tiles in shape are subdivided into flat, tape, groove, groove stamped, as well as grooved ordinary tiles made of cement-sand mortar or clay.
As a result, a fairly massive two-layer or three-layer roof is obtained from flat tiles. It can fit from any pediment. Such tiles are attached to the crate with clamps or nails. The extreme tiles are fastened with wire or special brackets..
The row adjacent to the eaves should be laid on a continuous crate, characteristic of the eaves. In this case, the tiles should be fixed at the edge of the cornice lathing. In the second row, the tiles are attached to the upper end of the tiles of the first row. All further rows are connected to the bars of the roof sheathing (just as the first row following the eaves row was attached). An exception is the ridge row. In this row, as in the second row of eaves, tiles must be laid on a solid crate.
Tape groove tiles differ in that they have grooves along the tiles. These slots allow you to create more durable and waterproof roofing with only one roof layer. Such tiles are laid from right to left. Begin laying from the hip or pediment edge. The grooves of the tiles must be firmly hooked to each other. In the case when the tile was not fixed very tightly into the groove of the adjacent tile, the junction must be carefully coated with lime-cement mortar.
Tape groove tiles are suitable for covering roofs of simple configuration.
Stamped groove and cement-sand tiles have both longitudinal and transverse grooves. Of these types of tiles for a reliable roof, it is also sufficient to use one roofing row. Transverse joints provide excellent waterproofing and reliability in another plane. Such tiles are laid from right to left and fastened to the crate with staples or wire..
Clay cement-sand and stamped tiles are the most waterproof types of tile roofs.
Grooved shingles are used for covering ribs and ridges, and for arranging roof rows. Typically, fluted roofs are used for roofs with a slope of 20-33%. If the roof slope is less, then water will seep at the joints. If the roof slope exceeds 33%, then there is a danger of tiles sliding off the roof..
For grooved shingles, unlike other types of shingles, you need a solid wood base. It is attached to the wood with a lime mortar. Fibrous materials or clay mixed with straw cutting should be added to the solution. The gaps between the tiles and the base should be filled with tiled or brick rubble.
Grooved tiles require laying from left to right. In this case, the narrower edge of the tile slabs should be directed downward. The tiles of the superior row should fit with their narrow edges into the upper, more widened edges of the lower row..
Sloping ribs and ridge of the roof should be lined with special ridge grooved tiles. Each ridge tile has a groove rim. With this rim, the tiles cling to the adjacent tiles..
Ridge tiles are laid in the direction of laying the rows of tiles on the roof slopes: from right to left or from left to right. On the ribs, the tiles must be laid from the bottom up. The places of the edge joints with the ridge must be sealed with a cement mortar or a roof rosette, which is made of roofing steel. The ridge tiles are attached to the wooden lattice with wire. However, it must be laid on a lime mortar..
The gutters and valleys of the tiled roof must be covered with paintings made of pre-galvanized steel. Those places where the tiled roof is adjacent to the wall must be covered with an apron, which is also made of galvanized steel. The apron is fastened with clamps to the base of the roof under the extreme rows of tiles and nailed to the foundation bar.
Arrangement of a collar for a chimney. On the roof, the so-called otter should be made from the tiles around the pipe. The otter is made from a cement-sand mortar. The chimney collar is the most vulnerable part of the roof. Therefore, a poorly prepared solution or its poor styling can lead to leaks over time due to cracking of the otter..
The tiled roof around the chimney shaft must lie tightly on the crate. The gap between the roof and the trunk must be laid out with collars. The doorways are also made of galvanized steel. Then the gap is filled with a cement-sand mortar. This is done so that a collar is formed around the pipe, which protrudes above the roof. In its lower part, the collar should be widened and lie tightly on the tiles. The upper part should fit the chimney shaft precisely and tightly. For better moisture removal from the side of the roof ridge, a protrusion with a pair of inclined planes is installed on the collar.
To avoid damage to the already laid roof, it is necessary to use bridges. Bridges are made from plank flooring. Subsequently, these bridges will still serve their purpose when access to the dormer window or, again, to the chimney is required. It is rational to arrange such permanent bridges from the point of exit to the roof to the chimney, as well as along the eaves and ridge of the roof.
Metal roofing is made of special type profiles made of hot-dip galvanized steel. Also, metal tiles, as a rule, are covered with a multi-layer coating of colored plastics. Such a coating is resistant to the most destructive part of the solar radiation spectrum, as well as to a wide range of temperatures (from -50 degrees to +120). The service life of a properly made and laid metal tile is more than 30 years. The metal tile roof is characterized by reliability and lightness. Such shingles are attached to the crate with special self-tapping screws, which have an auxiliary gasket in the cap, which makes such a connection waterproof and generally sealed. Installation of such a tile is very simple and does not require, in fact, any complex equipment..
Metal tiles are highly valued due to their cost-effectiveness, durability, lightness and ease of installation..