- Preparatory stage
- Developing a plan
- Required tools
- Balcony on strip foundations
- Earthworks and cellar organization
- Pouring the foundation
- Ceiling and wall construction
- Balcony on stilts
- Suspended frame balcony
- Balcony roof
- Installation of door and window blocks
- Balcony insulation and finishing
The balcony extension on the ground floor will make the apartment more spacious. This is true for those who live on the ground floor, but do not have a balcony or loggia. The article will sequentially consider all stages of the balcony extension, from the development of the plan to finishing the finished balcony.
First of all, fill out the permits required for the addition of the balcony (BTI, ATI and others).
Developing a plan
A plan is not only a blueprint for the future balcony, it is also an action plan. In the construction plan, you need to take into account all the features of the future balcony – the possibility of building a cellar or a separate entrance to the apartment from the street.
First you need to decide on the type of balcony, whether it will be hinged or stand on a foundation. For self-construction, it will be difficult to implement a hinged cantilever method of attaching a balcony slab using channels. They are installed in floor slabs, and this leads to a violation of the supporting structures.
To get started, you need to have the following set of tools:
- Concrete mixer (or trough).
- Welding machine.
- Shovel and buckets for earthwork.
- Spatula and trowel.
- A hammer.
- Roulette, ruler, level (water or laser).
Balcony on strip foundations
The foundation marking can be done as shown in the diagram.
Marking for the foundation: a – freestanding balcony; b – a balcony adjacent to the adjacent.
1 – pegs; 2 – boards; 3 – twine or line; 4 – house wall; 5 – balcony couple; 6 – wall of the adjacent balcony
On the wall you need to mark the place where the door to the balcony will be located.
Balcony door markings
Earthworks and cellar organization
Excavation work includes digging a trench for the foundation and a deepening for the cellar. The cellar floor must not be lowered below the level of the building foundation. After you dug the cellar, you need to waterproof it with roofing material, preferably in two layers. Then level the floor with expanded clay or sand, install a metal mesh and pour concrete. The thickness of the screed is at least 5 cm. After the screed has hardened, we erect the inner walls of the cellar. They can be pulled out of the brick by masonry “on the edge”.
The next step is the foundation trench. Dig a trench 50 cm deep. The trench width should be more than 1.5 times the width of the future balcony wall. The foundation trench must reach the wall of the house or an adjacent balcony so that the foundation is tightly adjacent to them. It is better to remove the earth from the trench and cellar immediately, since it will not be useful, but will only clutter up the space on the construction site. A small layer of rubble (10-15 cm) is poured at the bottom of the trench and a sand pillow is made.
If you do not plan to arrange a cellar, then you can make a columnar base. It is necessary to dig holes 0.5 m deep at a distance of no more than 2 m. Subsequently, make a concrete cushion for the posts.
Pouring the foundation
When making concrete, it is best to use crushed stone as a filler, as the purest material (as opposed to gravel). It is also good to use a plasticizer or other additive that has water-repellent and frost-resistant properties. Concrete with a plasticizer will be denser and more fluid, which will allow the foundation to be poured without air pockets. The strip foundation should dry on average 3-4 weeks, then walls can be erected. You can use ready-made concrete blocks as a foundation.
Arrangement of a balcony on a strip foundation: 1 – the foundation of the house; 2 – strip foundation; 3 – half-brick brickwork; 4 – house wall; 5 – floor logs; 6 – balcony frame; 7 – second floor balcony slab
Ceiling and wall construction
Brick or aerated concrete blocks are mainly used as masonry material. The laying is done in one row. For the manufacture of overlapping on logs from a bar, a sub-floor is installed (made of plywood, OSB or flat slate). Then a reinforcing mesh is installed with a window of 10-15 cm at a height of 5-6 cm from the subfloor. The reinforcement mesh should be in the thickness of the slab and be built into the outer wall of the house. If there is a descent from the balcony into the cellar, it must be fenced off or a hatch must be mounted immediately. The plate is poured and allowed to dry for up to 4 weeks. Next, you can make a hole for the balcony door by removing the unnecessary part of the wall under the window using a punch. We continue laying the walls, not forgetting about the outer window block and the doorway (if you plan to enter from the street). We reach the walls to a level that is slightly below the level of the second floor balcony to make the roof slope.
Balcony on stilts
It is easier and faster to build a balcony on piles than on a foundation, but there are some nuances. You will not be able to build a normal cellar, the piles withstand less weight.
Mark the places where the piles will be driven. The distance between the piles should be about 2 m.Then, drive them in or screw them into the ground strictly vertically, to a depth below the freezing of the ground.
Attention! Piles, driven in or screwed in at an angle, must never be leveled directly into the ground, they must be pulled out and driven (screwed in) vertically.
Next, you need to cut them at the same height, to the level of the overlap. Then a welded floor frame is made. The slab is reinforced with mesh and poured with concrete. Further the walls are stretched.
Suspended frame balcony
A suspended frame balcony is the easiest solution, we will describe its advantages:
- it is easier to legalize;
- can be attached to any floor;
- its component parts can be manufactured separately from the construction site;
- installation does not require strong intervention in the supporting structures of the house.
The disadvantages include weak vibration resistance and the fact that the metal structure will “play” when exposed to temperature. Also, this design has a limited extension due to the lack of support..
To begin with, brackets are made from metal corners 60×60. The brackets will form the basis for the entire structure, therefore, you need to attach them to the wall of the house with anchors, at least 20 mm thick. The frame is treated with an anti-corrosion compound. A steel sheet or a frame from 45×45 corners is welded onto the finished frame. Then the base of the floor is placed. The base of the floor can be a concrete slab, boards or a finished insulated floor..
After installing the floor, you can dismantle the old window block and use a punch to make an opening for the new balcony block. Then the vertical beams and parapet are welded.
As a frame and lathing for a balcony roof, you can use 25×25 metal corners or wooden bars. The roof should have a slight slope to drain water, therefore, the balcony walls must be pulled out to a level that is slightly below the level of the second floor balcony. Any roofing material can be used – ondulin, tiles, slate, etc..
It is advisable to make the roof for a suspended balcony separately hanging, so it will not put pressure on the balcony brackets with its weight.
Installation of door and window blocks
The first thing you need to know is that the installation of balcony doors should be done so that the doors open into the room, and not onto the balcony. The frames of the window unit must be level.
Advice.The window unit on the balcony must be installed closer to the outer edge, so that moisture does not collect inside under the window and ice does not form in winter.
Having installed the frame in place, you need to unfasten it with anchors and foam it with polyurethane foam. When the foam dries, you can install a window sill and make slopes.
Balcony insulation and finishing
Having attached a balcony, you need to insulate it from the inside and / or outside. For capital balconies, mineral wool or foam materials can be used as insulation, which can be plastered and covered with paint or decorative plaster. Heaters must be stacked very tightly to each other, gaps are unacceptable.
Advice.Two 5 cm insulation layers stacked one on top of the other are more effective than a single 10 cm insulation layer.
Suspended balconies are sheathed with corrugated board or siding. Inside, a crate is made into which insulation is laid.
Internal insulation is best made of polystyrene or polystyrene foam and penofol (foamed polyethylene film with foil). Penofol serves as a kind of heat shield and does not allow heat to leave the room. This combination can be used for both floors and walls. Insulation is laid on the walls and floor and sheathed with finishing materials.
In conclusion, it can be said that no matter what type of balcony you choose, it must have a solid, reliable support or be well anchored in the wall. In difficult situations, seek professional help. Pay attention to the quality of the materials used.