- Classification by the type of binder filler
- Preparatory work
- Tools and supplies
- Preparation of construction staff
- Technologies for applying decorative plaster
- Coloring the decorative layer
Decorative plaster is a practical wall covering that flawlessly fulfills its aesthetic functions and is distinguished by sufficient wear resistance. The material is used both for facing transit zones and living quarters. In this material, we will consider the basic principles of working with decorative plaster.
It is not surprising that the demand for plastering walls with decorative composition is increasing, as is the cost of professional services. But you can do without a specialist: performing this type of painting work is within the power of homeowners.
Classification by the type of binder filler
Before starting to study the features and nuances of applying decorative plaster, it is useful to determine the type of material. On the market of finishing materials there are: acrylic, mineral, silicate and silicone plasters.
Acrylic plaster is an elastic, ready-made water-dispersion composition. Decorative coating is water-repellent and resistant to UV light, dirt.
Mineral plaster is an environmentally friendly material that is recommended for decorating the walls of residential premises. The base is lime or cement with the addition of solid filler particles of mineral origin.
Silicone composition – a paste-like mixture based on silicone resin. The material is not afraid of dampness and temperature fluctuations.
The composition of the silicate-based plaster contains liquid glass. This is the reason for the main advantages of the material: resistance to ultraviolet radiation and high humidity, the formation of fungus, a high level of fire safety.
The advantages of the composition over other finishing materials:
- decorative coating visually levels the flaws of the base surface;
- visual seamlessness;
- ease of use;
- environmental friendliness of the building composition.
Based on the decorative properties, plasters are divided into: textured, structural and flock.
The textured look of the decorative wall covering is used to create an imitation of the surface of stone, wood, velvet and silk. The material has good masking properties (hides surface defects), can be used for wall cladding in wet rooms.
Flock plaster consists of an acrylic base with an admixture of rounded “flakes” of a certain size. Thanks to the use of flock, you can create an effect “under the skin”, imitation of velor or suede fabric. The coating is UV resistant and does not require additional detergents for cleaning.
Structural plaster is a granular mass of non-uniform consistency interspersed with granules of mineral or synthetic origin: stone, quartz, wood fibers, etc. To create a colored coating, a tint pigment is added to a mixture of dry plaster and water..
There are three basic stages:
- Foundation preparation.
- Preparation of construction composition and application of decorative plaster.
To prepare the base surface, you first need to dismantle the old coating, remove cracks and other defects in the base. Level the walls using cement putty or ready-made mortar.
For good adhesion of the coating to the wall, a deep penetration primer with a strengthening effect must be applied to the substrate. If necessary, treat the surface with an antifungal agent.
Tools and supplies
In addition to the tool for plastering walls, you must purchase:
- A rubbing sponge (can be replaced with a kitchen sponge) is used for grouting. The rough side of the foam sponge can be adapted for rough grouting, and the soft side for the final grout;
- construction mixer for mixing decorative plaster;
- tools for leveling and creating a relief surface: plaster trowel, scraper, spatulas, brushes and rollers;
- container for mixing the solution.
Preparation of construction staff
When preparing the mixture, you should strictly adhere to the manufacturer’s instructions, which indicates the amount of dry mixture and water, as well as the sequence and method of mixing them. For mixing, a drill with adjustable speeds and a mixer attachment are used. The minimum speed should be set to prepare a homogeneous mixture.
It is important to adjust the consistency correctly by adding water: when applying by spraying, the maximum amount of water is 5%, when applying by hand, 2%. The plaster sets quickly, therefore it is recommended to mix the composition in small portions.
Technologies for applying decorative plaster
Stretching is a popular way to apply decorative coatings to walls. The mortar should be applied with a wide trowel in continuous strokes from one corner of the base to the other. The thickness of the layer depends on the thickness of the fraction and varies from 2 to 5–7 mm. It is necessary to smear the building composition evenly over the entire area of the treated area, and apply a decorative coating to the adjacent area with an overlap of 4–5 cm.
Since the layer of material dries up quickly enough, it is recommended to apply decorative plaster together: first, one person covers the walls with a layer of material, and the other after him levels the decorative layer to the thickness of the grain of the fraction.
After applying a few base coats of decorative plaster, you can start creating artistic effects on a damp surface. We offer you some simple ways.
Surface decoration options:
1. Reception using an artificial sponge consists in light blotting movements. In this case, “spots” are formed on the wall. For greater effect, they can be painted in several colors..
2. Get the crumpled paper effect with a piece of absorbent cloth. The material must be crumpled and walked over a damp base with blotting movements.
3. Alternatively, you can use special textured rollers, the use of which significantly speeds up the process of decorating the base.
The sprinkling technique is somewhat more complicated. First, you need to apply two or three layers of decorative coating, and then start adding volume to the texture. This will require a broom and a stick. After moistening the broom in the solution, you need to hit it on the stick in such a way that the splashes hit the previously plastered wall. In this case, it is advisable to use one color for the base, and a lighter or darker shade to create a “splash” effect.
After 24–48 hours (after the finish coat has completely dried), it is worth stripping, removing poorly fixed particles of plaster, armed with a fine-grained sandpaper.
Coloring the decorative layer
You can start painting the surface only after the decorative surface is completely dry, it will take from 8 to 48 hours.
Several colors are used to paint surfaces with a coarse filler fraction. The first – lighter – is applied with a paint roller, the base is allowed to dry completely, and only then the protruding areas of the relief are covered with a more saturated shade. This method allows you to make walls voluminous and massive, so it should be used only in large rooms..
In order to make the finish coat durable and shiny, the glazing technique is used. In the old days, wax was used, but working with it is very time consuming, so now they use transparent acrylic-based varnish. It is most convenient to cover the walls with a roller with a long nap or a wide paint brush..