- Forming and fixing the profile frame
- Tier set methods
- Electric network laying
- Ceiling sheathing
- Ceiling decoration
Multi-tiered ceilings with spot and hidden lighting provide designers with so many possibilities that they will definitely not go out of fashion soon. Today we will tell you about how to make a two-level plasterboard ceiling with lighting with your own hands.
Forming and fixing the profile frame
In ordinary cases, a two-tiered ceiling only imitates a cascade. The highest tier is usually not formed by a plasterboard structure, instead a rough ceiling surface is used. This plane can be tightened with a stretch ceiling.
This design implies that all prefabricated elements are attached directly to the ceiling independently of each other. Adjacent profiles of adjacent tiers can, however, be fastened together, but not for the purpose of strengthening – rather, for faster and more convenient assembly and alignment of the structure. Such a frame is recruited really quickly, but it does not behave very well with a high weight of the suspended structure. Due to the lack of a common base, the frame is subject to shear and deformation.
There is another concept as well. For ceilings with three or more tiers, as well as for structures lower than 30 cm from the rough ceiling, the frame has a real cascade device. In other words, each tier is independent in the horizontal plane and serves as the basis for the underlying one, and the structure itself resembles an inverted pyramid. This approach is very beneficial both from the point of view of saving profiles and from the point of view of reliability and overall solidity..
However, today we will focus on two simpler designs that demonstrate a visual construction of tiers one after another according to any of the systems described above. In the general case, the lower tiers of the ceiling can be represented by an external figure adjacent to one or more walls, or an internal figure located at some distance from the ceiling corners..
In the first version, the frame is like a ceiling edging and has two track profile lines for fixing to walls and ceilings. The profile is nailed to the wall along a horizontal line that intersects the room with a common plane in the horizon. The second profile is attached to the ceiling along the line marking the contour of the future figure. In both cases it is necessary to give an allowance for the thickness of the sheet and finishing.
The main plane of the tier is assembled like any other: rack-mountable CD-60s, which do not protrude in length beyond the figure’s projection line. The rack elements of the frame are recruited perpendicular to each of the walls to which the tier is adjacent, in increments of 45-60 cm. When working with external figures, one assumption can be made: do not continue the profile after the first intersection. It looks so that the profiles of one wall, resting on the transversely directed profiles of the neighboring one, are limited to a T-shaped joining, for which it is allowed to cut the crosspiece (crab) in two diagonally.
For internal figures, the lathing of the plane should be carried out with a frame mesh with a cell of 60 cm. But how to install rack profiles if there are no guides under them? The fact is that the assembly of the outer corners is a topic for a separate conversation, there are several options.
Tier set methods
We stopped at the fact that along the contour of the figure, a profile with the function of a guide was nailed to the ceiling with metal anchor wedges or dowels. If the edge of the tier is straight, the profile is nailed behind the central flange. Sections of rack-mount CD-60 are inserted into it, the length corresponding to the height of the tier. The lower edge of the segments is cut under the “tongue”, to which a third guide profile is attached on two self-tapping screws, which edges the rack profiles of the horizontal part of the frame.
If the face of the shape has a bend, a flexible segmented profile is attached to the ceiling in this section. And this is the only way to attach the radius edge to the ceiling. A self-cut “herringbone” cannot serve as a suspension, its shelves will bend under the weight of the structure. Accordingly, after stripping the sheets, the edge of the figure will sag unevenly by several millimeters. This is not so important for thin cornices and vignettes, but we are considering larger figures..
The handicraft “herringbone” from the profile nevertheless finds its application in the radius ceilings: it is used to surround the ends of the rack-mount profiles of the horizontal plane. This edging is connected to the ceiling profile using sections of the rack profile, and if the bends are too steep, the CD-60 is replaced with a narrower guide.
If the side edge of the figure forms a backlit niche, the lintels from the ceiling profile are made with a rack-mount CD-60 and are attached in such a way as to maintain the horizontal edge, that is, exactly above it. In this case, the frame of the plane is slightly taken out beyond the contour of the figure and framed by a “herringbone”, to which a thin strip of drywall is then attached, forming a side. Inside, along the vertical posts, another strip is sewn, wider, which acts as a reflective partition.
After assembling the frame and approving its final configuration, it is necessary to strengthen the lathing of the horizontal planes. This is done with direct suspensions, and with a very low ceiling – with knitting needles.
To assemble a soundproof ceiling, use special damping profile mounts
There are specialized fasteners for any type of profile connection
Electric network laying
Before finally closing access to the internal cavities of the ceiling, communications are laid in them. These can be both lighting cables and transit wiring, communication lines and speaker wires built into the ceiling. Regardless of the type, these cables must be wrapped in a corrugation. Not only for fire safety reasons, but for cut protection when pulled. Another rule applies to fasteners: power cables, including local lighting, should not be fastened to the frame profiles, only to the ceiling. Unlike television and other low-voltage conductors, these can be tied with nylon clamps..
This explains why it would be a mistake to first hem the horizontal planes of the tiers, and then scatter the hidden electrical network. This is done under the pretext that it is much easier to wire through the holes for spotlights, but it is assumed that the wires are attached to the frame, which, we repeat, is not allowed by the rules for the safe operation of electrical installations (PBEEP 15.2.2). In this light, the transition to a low-voltage lighting network, for example, with LED strips, seems even more profitable, especially when the tiers with backlighting are far away from the rough ceiling..
In any case, the marking of the connection points is carried out along the ceiling, sometimes with strips of electrical tape on the profile. At this point, the cable should be folded into a loop with a margin sufficient for conveniently connecting the lamp by weight, standing on a ladder under the ceiling. In these places, the wires must be pre-stripped and provided with terminal blocks, while it is advisable not to break the core. Individual lighting lines are connected to a common highway by means of small boxes fixed to the ceiling. Those, in turn, are connected with a 4 or 5-core wire to the junction box of the common network, where decoupling to switches is performed.
1. Control unit. 2. LED strip. 3. Remote control. 4. Power supply
If electronic ballasts or voltage transformers are included in the lighting network, they should be installed at a minimum distance from the powered light sources. Most of such equipment is produced in a protected case, so they can be mounted directly to the ceiling on a non-combustible substrate. Moreover, enclosing the device in a box can cause rapid deterioration due to insufficient cooling..
When lining the ceiling of the gypsum board, you should start from flat horizontal planes, which contributes to a more rational use of scraps for fragmentary sewing of the side edges. First, all sheets are sewn to the frame lathing, and then to the edge. The distance between the attachment points is about 25-30 cm in the center of the sheet and 10-15 cm at the edges.
The hemming of the bottom edges, performed primarily, makes it easier to work with radius parts. The trimmed herringbone on the outer edges is attached to every second or third petal, due to which the middle shelf acquires sufficient rigidity for attaching the sheets to the side edge. After that, you can cut out the holes for the lamps with a crown and bring out the hidden lighting wires: it is more convenient to do this while the side edges of the ceiling are still open.
The ends of the tiers are sewn up just as easily. Small pieces are screwed to the ceiling and edge profiles, as well as to the uprights connecting them with a standard fixing pitch. In the places where the fragments are joined, trims of the rack-mount profile are placed under the seam, which do not have direct attachment to the frame.
For sewing bent surfaces, drywall is prepared in several ways. This can be cross-cutting with a knife, or rolling with a needle roller impregnating the sheet with water to obtain flexibility. The second option is preferable due to the high speed of execution and minimal efforts for subsequent alignment. However, the wet sheet must first be fixed, only having previously given it the desired shape, moreover, only on the main bends. The rest of the screws are screwed in after drying, when the sheet becomes dense enough again.
A strip of drywall moistened with water bends easily, and the curved surface is the result of a regular shape and smooth
Do not forget that the decoration of multi-tiered ceilings is associated with the widespread use of corner and flat tapes to strengthen the seams. In the first case, these should be metallized paper strips or perforated corner profiles. Flat seams are covered with special perforated tape.
It is imperative to chamfer all ends of the drywall sheet, especially when forming the outer corners, in order to get a strong and reliable edge after rough finishing with starting putty that will not crack over time
When strengthening the seams, it is recommended to use starting plaster, and with it, initially stretch all surfaces of the ceiling with the laying of fiberglass. This will create a uniform substrate, which means that the joints and screws will not be visible through the thin smoothing layer of the finish..