- Area and shape and location of the site
- Local infrastructure
- Availability of energy resources and communications
- Geomorphological conditions and terrain
- Insolation value
- Cultural environment
- The proximity of businesses and the liveliness of the area
Usually, when choosing a building land, there are a wide range of alternatives. At the same time, the negative sides are not revealed immediately, and the train, as they say, has long gone. Today we will talk about the points to which you need to pay attention when choosing land for the construction of a summer house or residential building.
Area and shape and location of the site
If there is a project for a house and a layout of a personal plot, the question of the shape and size of the latter does not stand as such. However, much more often land is bought first, and only then design work is carried out with what is. There are indicative indicators of the area for different types of buildings:
- For a small country house or change house, next to which there will be a flower garden and a compact vegetable garden, 3-4 hundred parts of the plan will be enough.
- House with a total area of 100-150 m2 with a garage, a vegetable garden and a small garden will require at least 6-7 acres.
- On a plot of 10 acres, there is an opportunity to rebuild a spacious mansion with an extensive driveway and utility area.
The shape and orientation of the site to the cardinal points are of no less importance. Excessively elongated land plans should be avoided unless they are parallel to the access road. Most practical areas with aspect ratios from 1: 3 to 1: 1.
For a comfortable permanent residence, it is very important that the village has everything you need. Each person’s lifestyle has its own characteristic differences, but such basic things as a supermarket, a post office and a bank, an outpatient clinic or a local hospital should be absolutely accessible..
If there are children in the family, the kindergarten and school should be within 10-15 minutes of walking. Please note that the route to them does not pass through abandoned industrial zones, landfills and wastelands, does not cross busy highways without regulated crossings, and is generally safe.
The presence of a market, a store of household and building materials is encouraged. It’s good if there are at least two ATMs and universal terminals nearby, the modern rhythm of life forces you to use them more and more often..
There should be a bus station within 1.5–2 km, or at least a public transport stop, if the developer does not own his own. Please note that the optimal distance between the main infrastructure facilities is no more than 1.5–2 km, otherwise problems may arise without buses running regularly around the settlement..
Pay special attention to the presence of a more or less large construction base within 10-15 km, otherwise the delivery of construction materials may result in large overhead costs. Take into account that construction work may require a heavy vehicle entrance. The intensity of the settlement’s development should also be taken into account: it is likely that in a few years the infrastructure on the site will develop beyond recognition..
Availability of energy resources and communications
It is difficult to imagine modern life without the benefits of civilization. At a minimum, you will need one of the most affordable sources of energy: electricity or natural gas. It is possible to use solid fuels, especially dry forests from nearby green spaces.
The second issue is the availability of water resources. For construction and further living, a large amount of water is required. And if there is no central water supply system and is not even planned, it should at least be possible to equip your own well or well.
An obstacle to this may be the presence in the immediate vicinity of water treatment facilities, for example, neighboring septic tanks or cesspools. Geomorphological features can also limit the arrangement of a drinking water source..
Geomorphological conditions and terrain
The most important thing on any site is what is literally underneath. Of course, it is unprofitable to order a geomorphological examination for each area under consideration. Therefore, first it is worth weeding out all the options that are not suitable for practical reasons, and only after that it is determined with suitable geomorphological conditions.
Mainly, the composition and location of soil layers, the level of groundwater and seismic activity will affect the specifics of construction. Based on this data, you will have to determine the appropriate type of foundation and the method of arranging the basement. An important role in this issue is played by the cost of preparing the supporting structure of the house: under some conditions, the pile-grillage foundation will be enough, under others you cannot do without a buried monolithic slab.
The second aspect is the availability of water resources, which we talked about above. In this matter, as in many others, you can rely on the experience of neighboring developers. It is worth asking them about the quality of drinking water, the investigated section of the soil and other conditions of the area. Please note that geomorphological conditions can change at different times of the year, especially in lowlands and near large bodies of water. In addition, the availability of accessible drinking water from neighbors does not at all guarantee the possibility of installing a source on your site..
Finally, don’t forget about soil fertility. If you plan to start a vegetable garden, avoid sandy loam and dusty soils that are poor in humus. Otherwise, the issue will be resolved only at the expense of imported soil..
Many people forget that sufficient natural light not only affects the general mood and comfort of the residents of the house, but also provides savings on heating in winter. The average annual amount of solar radiation per square meter is determined by both latitude and the presence of tall objects in the immediate vicinity..
So, a plot on the edge of a forest, in the vicinity of a high mansion or multi-storey building, will experience a clear lack of natural light. On the other hand, you should be able to stretch your house along a line from southwest to northeast in order to rotate most of the windows towards the most illuminated part of the sky..
There is, for example, a little-known but fairly simple script program on daybit.ru that allows you to compare the solar analemma with a spherical photo panorama and the coordinates of the point from which it was captured. This helps to quickly estimate the number of hours of sunshine at different times of the year; for more detailed studies, you should use special software for calculating insolation, for example, the demo version of “CITIS”.
Keep in mind that the local culture can go against your expectations. Noisy neighbors, the presence of a nearby hostel with guest workers, or an exacerbated crime situation can become a hindrance..
The best way to evaluate a site according to these criteria is to settle nearby for at least a few days while bureaucratic and other issues are being resolved. The likelihood of witnessing unpleasant incidents is not very high, but after all, a plot is not bought, strictly speaking, every day, so any reinsurance will only benefit.
In this vein, the presence of cooperative entities is encouraged. If the neighbors are ready to unite for a joint solution of social or housing issues, this is an unambiguous advantage of the chosen area. Among other things, assistance within the framework of the cooperative will help to resolve issues with both communications and infrastructure elements..
The proximity of businesses and the liveliness of the area
Finally, you should think about ecology and household sanitation. You may not want to buy an area that is periodically covered by a cloud of smog from a smoldering swamp, or next to a livestock farm..
A land plot should be blacklisted if a thermal power plant is located within 5 km from it, or if there is a chemical, metallurgical or cement plant closer than 10 km. The proximity of highways and interchanges, both road and rail, also does not play into the hands. Close proximity of quarries, military bases and warehouses should be avoided in every possible way, and in particular – fields of mining, carried out by hydraulic fracturing..
Do not be deceived by the fact that the development area is lively and infrastructure facilities are constantly developing in it. Perhaps this is a consequence of a large enterprise expanding or under construction nearby, the noise and pollution from which will appear after the building is rebuilt. Always think about the prospects for the development of the region and communicate with local residents, this will help to avoid costly mistakes.