Speaking of Moscow, first of all, as the capital of Russia, a cultural center, a city with a history of more than eight centuries, and its sights attract travelers from all over the world, many forget that Belokamennaya is also a large industrial center, an important part of the economy of the entire country..
Throughout the 18th century, the development of Moscow industry continued at a fairly high rate and had a number of peculiarities – in those days, serfs were most often used as unskilled labor, who were attached to the plant. By the way, the word “plant” itself originated from “institution”, that is, industrial enterprises were initially equated with ordinary private companies, for example, retail stores.
It was in the 18th century on the outskirts of Moscow, whose population was then already approaching 140 thousand people, that paper mills, glass factories and textile enterprises began to appear.
The first large manufactory opened by order of Peter the Great was the Khamovny Dvor, located on the banks of the Yauza River, in the village of Preobrazhenskoye. By the end of the 18th century, the Khamovny Dvor had become the largest enterprise in Moscow – it employed more than 1.3 thousand people, and to use the energy of the water, the Yauza was blocked by a dam. Another large enterprise of that time was the cable plant, which opened near the Danilov Monastery.
By 1740, more than 50% of all Russian manufactories were located in Moscow, the main specialization of the Moscow industry was textile production – silk, woolen cloth, canvas. As of 1797, about 144 industrial enterprises operated in Moscow.
Subsequently, the share of Moscow in the country’s production decreased – with the development of production in the Urals, St. Petersburg and other large cities, the percentage of Moscow industry in the total volume of products produced in Russia steadily decreased.
The first industrial exhibition was held in Moscow already in 1831 (however, St. Petersburg, then the capital of the empire, outstripped Belokamennaya – the exhibition of manufactories was first held here in 1829). The products of Russian craftsmen presented at the exhibition, in particular, tableware, glass products, fabrics, weapons and jewelry, amazed the foreign guests of Moscow, and the exhibition contributed to the further development of the city’s industry.
In the 19th century, in addition to textile and food enterprises, mechanical engineering centers were opened in Moscow, such as the Gopper (Mikhelson) Machine-Building and Iron Foundry, which opened in 1847 and after the revolution was renamed the Vladimir Ilyich Plant (ZVI). By the way, it was at the facilities of this plant that the famous Katyushas were produced during the Great Patriotic War..
Goujon’s metallurgical plant opened in 1893 and in 1922 received a new name – Hammer and Sickle. The production facilities of the enterprise were moved to the Smolensk region only in 2000.
Daria Kotlyarova. Hammer and Sickle Factory. 2004
The Dux Imperial Aircraft Plant appeared in Moscow in 1893 and originally produced bicycles. Then, at the plant’s facilities, the production of Dux-Lokomotiv ferry vehicles, electric vehicles, motorcycles, and at the beginning of the 20th century, aircraft began..
The aircraft engine-building plant Gnome-Rhone was opened by order of Nicholas II in 1912 under the guidance of specialists from the French company “Gnome-Rhone” and produced engines for aircraft. The enterprise still operates today, its main field of activity is the production of gas turbine aircraft engines for combat aircraft. In 2011, it was renamed into FSUE “Scientific and Production Center of Gas Turbine Engineering” Salyut “.
In 1916, the Automobile Moscow Society (AMO) was opened, the launch of the plant was postponed due to the events associated with the 1917 revolution. The first one and a half ton truck left the AMO assembly line only in 1924. In 1931 the enterprise received a new name – I.V. Stalin (ZIS), and in 1956 it was again renamed the Ivan Alekseevich Likhachev Plant (ZIL).
However, the fastest growing industry in the Moscow region began to develop in the 1930s, after the government introduced the “five-year” system and industrialization began. The main industrial construction was carried out outside the borders of Moscow that existed at that time, but over time, such large enterprises that were built in the 30s-40s of the last century, such as the Moscow oil refinery located in the Kapotnya area, found themselves practically in the center of the capital, which, of course, not the best effect on the ecology of the city.
Gerasimov Vladimir. Moscow industrial zone 4.187
However, in the age of industrialization, such a term as “ecology” said little to the leaders of the country, the main goal was to increase production volumes. And no one could imagine how much Moscow would grow in the next 70 years.
Relocation of industrial zones in Moscow
In 2004, the “Target Program for the Reorganization of Industrial Areas of the City of Moscow for the Period 2004-2006” was adopted. The government of the capital has decided to gradually move all industrial zones existing in the central regions outside the city..
Proposals for the massive reorganization of industrial zones in Moscow provide that the area of industrial areas will be reduced to 15.6 thousand hectares from 20.9 thousand hectares.
It was planned that a part of the vacated territories – about 1.2 thousand hectares – will be included in the system of citywide centers of business activity and service, that is, it will be occupied by commercial real estate. The authorities intended to give about 1.9 thousand hectares for housing construction, and 2.2 thousand hectares of industrial areas located in the protected zones of the Setun, Likhoborka, Khapilovka, Nishchenka and others rivers, after carrying out rehabilitation measures, should again become a natural part of the Natural Complex of Moscow. However, it was decided to change and supplement the Master Plan for the development of the capital approved in 2005, now it bears the name “Master Plan for the Development of Moscow until 2025”, in addition, the expansion of the capital’s territory, which was decided in 2011, may make adjustments to the postponement and reorganization of industrial zones of Belokamennaya.
The Moscow government intends to completely liquidate the industrial zones located in the Central Administrative District of the capital, in its historical center. In general, 16 industrial zones will be completely liquidated, and in 20 of them it is planned to reduce the territories included in the industrial zones.
As Marat Khusnullin, Moscow’s deputy mayor for construction and urban planning policy, noted, most of the capital’s industrial facilities are not in the best condition, their territories are occupied by markets and have become a haven for illegal residents of the city. So, out of 47 industrial zones of the Central Administrative District in 2011, only 26% of them operated production, the rest are leased or simply abandoned. According to Khusnullin, it is planned to build multifunctional real estate objects in most of the former industrial zones..
As of 2011, 65 industrial zones are located within the Moscow Ring Road. The plans of the authorities in relation to most of them, in particular those located in the Central Administrative District, are quite specific – industrial zones will be reorganized, turned into new construction sites, and the process of transferring industrial zones itself will undoubtedly have a significant impact on the real estate market in Moscow.
Belov Vladimir. Industrial zone. 1992
Analysts have already compiled a rating of the most promising industrial zones of the capital in terms of their location.
The first place was taken by the industrial zone of the pencil factory JSC Factory named after Sakko and Vanzett and Badaevsky Brewery, the area of this territory is 14.5 hectares. Back in 2004, it was decided to move production and build in its place an elite complex “Park City”, investments in the implementation of this project may amount to 600 million dollars, the planned area of residential real estate – 220 thousand square meters, commercial – 90 thousand “squares” … This project was even presented at the international exhibition of the largest investment projects in real estate MIPIM-2005. The start of construction was planned for 2007, but then the authorities decided to leave the Badaevsky brewery in its place and the start of the project has been postponed to 2013.
The second line in this ranking is occupied by the “Trekhgornaya Manufaktura” Textile Factory, which covers an area of 12 hectares. The project planned in 2006, which involved the construction of 250 thousand square meters of commercial real estate, is currently frozen.
The third place is occupied by the industrial zone of Berezhkovskaya embankment – 29 hectares of area.
Real estate experts also call the Golden Island a very promising project – the reconstruction and reorganization of the territory of the Krasny Oktyabr plant. It is also planned to build a multifunctional complex, the cost of apartments in the “Golden Island” can reach 30-40 thousand dollars per square meter.
Among other promising industrial zones that can be reorganized, experts name the industrial zone No. 5 “Magistralnye Streets” in the Presnensky District, where the plant “Stroydetal No. 6” is located, which is currently not working, its areas are leased. This list also includes the Second Watch Factory “Slava” on Leningradsky Prospekt, the former precast concrete plant on Shelepikhinskaya Embankment and Melkombinat No. 4 in Shmitovsky Proezd.
Analysts believe that all residential and commercial complexes that may appear on the site of industrial zones in the central districts of Moscow will belong to elite, very expensive real estate due to their location, because there are practically no free plots for construction in the center of the capital..
Another area that will be influenced by the reorganization of Moscow’s industrial zones is the emergence of such a relatively new and so far exotic for our country segment of the residential real estate market, such as lofts – industrial premises that have become elite residential apartments with free planning and a huge area. It is lofts that can become the most expensive housing that will appear on the site of the reorganized industrial zones of the capital..