The wrench is designed to connect and disconnect parts by twisting or unscrewing various nuts, bolts, and so on. The work is simple – untwisted, twisted, manual, usually without other devices or with the help of very simple assistants (we will tell you below).
The most common type of wrenches are double-ended open-end wrenches. In GOST 2839–80, they are called “open-ended wrenches, double-sided”. They were called Rozhkovy because of the ends that really resemble horns. At each end of the key there is a different size of open mouth. That is, one tool allows you to work with two sizes of nuts. Most often they are measured in millimeters. That is, the phrase “wrench for 14” means – “I need a wrench for a nut or bolt with a size of 14 millimeters”.
In general, the range of reversible open-end wrenches ranges from 4 to 55 millimeters. Note that the longitudinal axis of the handle and the longitudinal axis of the key head are angled, usually 15 degrees, but there are other options. It helps to work in confined spaces.
There are also unilateral open-end wrenches. Why are they needed if there are two-sided, more functional ones? Often, the fasteners are so tightly tightened that additional force is required to unwind. Or vice versa. And a pipe can be put on a single-sided wrench, which will allow you to cope even with a rusted bolt or significantly increase the tightening force. Sizes range from 36 to 95 millimeters, most often single-sided keys are used in production, and not in everyday life.
The second very popular type of wrench: ring wrenches. They are divided into the following types:
- Bilateral, which, like carob, have different sizes at the working ends – from 6 to 55 millimeters.
- One-sided. You can also use a nozzle pipe to strengthen the fasteners and increase the forces. Dimensions – from 30 to 50 millimeters.
- Drums. It should be explained here – the impact wrenches are thicker, there is a special thickening for impact, with which you can unscrew a rusty nut or achieve a particularly powerful tightening. Sizes – from 27; up to 105 millimeters.
- Curved box wrenches that allow you to work in awkward spaces where the nut is difficult to reach.
- With ratchet and swivel heads.
Note that box wrenches are popular due to the fact that you can turn the nut without coming off, there is no need to rearrange the tool every time. Such a key holds the bolt or nut more securely, does not break off. According to the profile of the head, spanners are divided into 12 and 6-point (TORX).
Combine these two varieties of wrenches with combined options. On one side of the horns – on the other, a cap working head. At the same time, work areas of the same size will go from both sides – from 5 to 32 millimeters.
Tubular or socket wrenches. They are irreplaceable where the nut is located inside, in the depths of some part and other types of keys simply cannot get to it. There are socket wrenches just in the form of a straight tube with hexagons at the ends, there are L-shaped ones. The latter can be twisted just like that, but the tube keys require a “helper”, often in the form of a simple screwdriver, which will serve as a rotary handle. The same variety includes spark plug wrenches familiar to every motorist, especially for spark plugs.
Important! Socket and spanner wrenches can be represented by modifications with a ratchet mechanism, that is, a ratchet. Such a device allows you not to flip the key and use it at a slight angle. The ratchet mechanism will differ in the number of teeth.
Adjustable wrenches. They are also called Swedish or Swedish. This is a kind of open-end wrenches, but the gap between the jaws can change smoothly. That is, you yourself can set the dimensions of the working head. Nowadays, adjustable wrenches are usually used, in which one of the jaws moves with the help of a worm.
A variety of adjustable wrenches are pipe wrenches, which are used where pipes need to be screwed, often in plumbing. They have a lever that allows you to clamp the desired part. An adjustable wrench is also often used by plumbers to grip pipes of different diameters..
It should be separately mentioned about this type of wrenches as sparkless. They differ from ordinary ones in their yellow or copper color, that is, they are easy to distinguish. During operation, such keys do not cause sparks when metals interact, therefore they are indispensable in explosive industries or in the case of working with gas equipment.
Of course, these are not all varieties of wrenches. For example, there are special kits of these tools for cyclists, including spokes and chain tighteners. And we wrote in detail about torque wrenches.