Masonry masonry is carried out in three ways: press-on, flush-in and flush-in with mortar trimming, and zabutki – half-flush. The choice of the masonry method depends on the plasticity of the mortar, the state of the brick (dry or wet), the season and the requirements for the cleanliness of the front side of the masonry.
Fig. 1. Clamp-on bricklaying
Using the press-on method (Fig. 1), brick walls are laid out on a hard mortar (cone draft 7-9 cm) with full filling and jointing. In this way, both spoon and butt versts are laid..
In this case, the solution is spread with an indent from the face of the wall by 10-15 mm. The mortar is leveled with the back of the trowel, moving it from the laid brick and arranging a mortar bed at the same time for three spoon or five butt bricks.
Clamping is performed in the following order. Holding a trowel in your right hand, level the mortar bed with it, then scoop up a part of the mortar with the edge of the trowel and press it against the vertical edge of the previously laid brick, and with your left hand bring a new brick to the place of laying. Thereafter
they lower the brick onto the prepared bed and, moving it with their left hand to the previously laid brick, press the trowel to the canvas.
With an upward movement of the right hand, take out the trowel, and the kir! With a pich, pushed forward with the left hand, the mortar is clamped between the vertical edges of the brick being laid and previously laid. By pressing the hands, the laid brick is placed on the mortar bed. The excess mortar squeezed out of the seam onto the face of the masonry is trimmed with a trowel in 1 step after poking every 3-5 bricks or after laying two bricks with spoons.
The mason sprinkles the mortar on the mortar bed. The masonry is solid, fully joint-filled, dense and clean. However, this method requires more movement than others and is therefore considered the most time consuming..
Using the sprinkling method (Fig. 2), masonry is carried out on plastic mortars (cone sediment 12-13 cm) with incomplete filling of the joints with mortar along the face of the wall, that is, by wasting. The process of laying a spoon row with this method is performed in the following order.
Fig. 2. Masonry in the way of adhesion
Taking a brick and holding it obliquely, rake part of the mortar previously spread on the bed with the butt edge of the brick.
They begin to rake in the mortar approximately at a distance of 8 ~ 12 cm from the previously laid brick. Moving the brick to the previously laid one, gradually straighten its position and press it to the bed. In this case, part of the solution taken from the bed fills the vertical transverse seam. Having laid a brick, they set it down with a hand on a mortar bed. When laying the butt row, the laying process is performed in the same sequence as the spoon, only the solution for the formation of a vertical transverse seam is raked not with a butt, but with a spoon edge. In this way, the brick can be laid with both the left and right hand..
For bricklaying by means of adhesion, the mortar is spread in a bed with an indent from the outer vertical surface by 20-30 mm, so that during laying the mortar is not squeezed onto the front surface of the masonry.
The sprinkling method with mortar trimming is used in the construction of walls with full filling of horizontal and vertical joints and with JUBOB jointing. In this case, the mortar is spread in the same way as when laying in a press, that is, with an indent from the face of the wall by 10-15 mm, and the brick is laid on the bed in the same way as when laying in close.
Excess mortar, squeezed out of the seam onto the face of the wall, is trimmed with a trowel, as when laying in a press. The mortar for masonry is used more rigid than for masonry without trimming, with a mobility of 10-12 cm. If the mortar is too plastic, the mason will not have time to cut it when squeezed out of the masonry seams. It takes more time and labor to complete the masonry with the mortar trimming than to lay it in, but less than pressing it.
In a half-way, lay out the zabutka (Fig. 3).
To do this, first spread the mortar between the inner and outer versts. Then it is leveled, after which the brick is laid in a zabutka.
The zabutka laying process is simple. When laying the brick, they hold it almost flat, at a distance of 6-8 cm from the previously laid one, gradually lowering the brick onto the mortar bed, rake in a small amount of mortar with an edge, move the brick close to the previously laid one and press the hand to settle its place.
Fig. 3. Zabutka masonry in a half-way: a – butts; b – spoons
The vertical seams remain partially unfilled. They are filled when spreading the mortar for the masonry of the next row in height, and the bricklayer makes sure that the transverse seams between the bricks are completely filled.
The backbone brick is pressed tightly to the bed so that the upper surface of the backbone bricks is level with the milestones.