Currently, all windows are divided into wood and metal-plastic. Wooden windows have been used for a very long time. They are still widely used today. Therefore, first of all, we will consider the main technological processes for installing wooden windows.
Before you start installing new windows, you need to remove the old window blocks. After removing the old window, you can directly proceed to installing a new one. When a window is installed together with a balcony door, the door should be installed first, and then one or two windows are installed.
When designing a house, it is best to immediately put windows with standard dimensions in the project. Windows with two sashes have dimensions along the outer circumference of the box 1450×1470 mm, and three-leaf windows are 1450×2100 mm. Windows are usually installed before finishing work begins. The window block is deepened into the outer wall by about 12-15 cm. When installing windows into wooden walls, the thickness of the boxes should be greater than the walls themselves. After wall cladding with finishing materials, the thickness will even out.
Before installing the window in the opening, the box from the outside and the wall itself are treated with special antiseptics. Depending on the material of the walls, the fastening of the box in the opening may be different. The box is connected to a wall made of timber or logs using ridges and grooves cut out in the opening on the back of the box. With a prefabricated panel structure of a house, boxes are nailed to the frame construction sites.
At the very beginning of installation, load-bearing blocks are placed under the window frames. After installation, they remain under the frame so that the window cannot change its position under its own weight. The location of the box in the window opening is regulated by special wedges and spacers. All wedges and spacers are placed in the area of the posts and crossbars and in the corners of the box. The initial check of the position of the box is made with a building level. The correspondence of the axes of the window opening and the frame is checked using a plumb line. The plumb line is applied to the mark at the top of the slope. If properly installed, its cord should pass through the point where the box’s diagonals intersect. Adjustment of the window horizontally and vertically is done with additional wedges. It is preferable to use plastic wedges with teeth that will not jump out of the gap. After the final reliable fixing of the box, the sashes are hinged, after which it is necessary to adjust their free movement when opening and closing.
If, according to the results of the checks, all window structures are in the right position, then you can finally fix it. Steel brushes are used to fasten the box. They are hammered into the seams or into wooden embedded parts, previously laid in the masonry. In the absence of embedded parts, holes are drilled in certain places to a depth of 6–8 cm. Wooden dowels are driven into these holes, into which ruffs or screws are screwed. After installing the window, the space between the box and the wall remains empty. Previously, these voids were filled with tow soaked in a gypsum solution. Currently, this operation is performed using polyurethane foam. Before filling, spacers are placed horizontally and vertically inside the box so that the frame does not bend under the action of the foam. After the foam has hardened, its excess is removed with a knife. After the final installation of the window, it is possible to carry out the installation of sills, window sills and platband.
Now we will consider the main stages of installation of metal-plastic windows. Before starting the installation, as in the case of wooden windows, it is necessary to dismantle the old window blocks, including the old seal. At the same time, the window is being prepared for installation and a special sealing tape is being prepared. This tape is initially compressed, and then expands and protects the polyurethane foam from moisture and sunlight. The installation of the window frame is carried out on a level and fixed in the opening with plates or pins. The ebb is attached to the window sill profile from the outside using press washers. The void under the tide is filled with polyurethane foam.
Double-glazed windows are installed, as a rule, in blind parts of the window, and then fixed with glazing beads around the window perimeter. The movable sash is hinged and adjustable with fittings. Seams are repeatedly filled with foam so that air pockets do not form. For high-quality adhesion, surfaces are wetted with water. The window sill is mounted in such a way that there is at least 12 cm to the heat source.The inside of the window sill is filled with foam, and a weight is placed on top to fix the foam in the desired shape.