Edible mushrooms: names with a description

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Before heading out into the forest for a “silent hunt”, you need to find out the variety, name, description and view photos of edible mushrooms (eukaryotic organisms). If you study them, you can see that the lower part of their cap is covered with a spongy structure, where spores are located. They are also called lamellar, they are very appreciated in cooking, due to the unique taste and many useful properties.

Types of Edible Mushrooms

In nature, there are a large number of different mushrooms, some can be eaten, while others are dangerous to eat. Edible do not threaten human health, differing from the poisonous structure of the hymenophore, color and shape. There are several types of edible representatives of this kingdom of wildlife:

  • oily;
  • russula;
  • chanterelles;
  • breasts;
  • Champignon;
  • White mushrooms;
  • honey mushrooms;
  • rubella.

Russula

Signs of Edible Mushrooms

Among eukaryotic organisms, there are also poisonous organisms that outwardly almost do not differ from useful ones, so study the signs of their difference in order to avoid poisoning. For example, porcini mushroom is very easy to confuse with mustard, which has an inedible bile taste. So, you can distinguish edible mushroom from its poisonous counterparts by the following parameters:

  1. The place of growth, which can be found from the description of edible and dangerous poisonous.
  2. A pungent unpleasant odor that contains poisonous specimens.
  3. Calm low-key color, which is characteristic of representatives of the food category of eukaryotic organisms.
  4. Food categories do not have a characteristic leg pattern.

Popular edible

All mushrooms edible for humans are rich in glycogen, salts, carbohydrates, vitamins and a large amount of minerals. This class of wildlife as a food has a positive effect on appetite, promotes the production of gastric juice, and improves digestion. The most famous names for edible mushrooms:

  • saffron milk cap
  • porcini;
  • boletus;
  • oiler;
  • boletus;
  • champignon;
  • fox
  • honey agaric;
  • truffle.

Porcini

Autumn honey agaric

This species of edible lamellar eukaryotic organisms grows on a tree and is one of the popular objects of “silent hunting” among mushroom pickers. The size of the hat reaches a diameter of 5 to 15 cm, its shape is round with the edges bent inward. In mature mushrooms, the apex is slightly convex with a tubercle in the middle. Color – from gray-yellow to brown shades, there are small scales. The pulp is dense, white in color, has a sour taste and a pleasant smell..

Autumn honey mushrooms have cylindrical legs, up to 2 cm in diameter and 6 to 12 cm long. The top is light, there is a white ring, the bottom of the legs is dense brown. Honey mushrooms grow from late summer (August) to mid-autumn (October) on deciduous trees, mainly on birch. They grow in wave-like colonies, not more than 2 times / year, the growth duration lasts 15 days.

Autumn honey agaric

Chanterelles ordinary

Another name is yellow chanterelle. Appeared due to the color of the hat – from egg to deep yellow, sometimes faded, light, almost white. The shape of the apex is irregular funnel-shaped, with a diameter of 6-10 cm, in young people it is almost flat, fleshy. The flesh of an ordinary chanterelle is dense with the same yellowish tint, a light mushroom smell and an island taste. Leg – fused with a hat, narrowed down to 7 cm in length.

These edible forest mushrooms grow from June to late autumn as whole families in coniferous, mixed, deciduous forests. Often it can be found in mosses. They are especially full of mushroom baskets in July, which accounts for the peak of growth. Chanterelles are one of the famous agaric mushrooms that appear after rain, and are used as a delicacy. Often they are confused with saffron mushrooms, but if you compare the photographs, you can see that the saffron hat has a flatter hat, and the leg and flesh are saturated orange.

Chanterelles ordinary

Champignon

They are also called caverniformes and meadow mushrooms. These are edible cap mushrooms with a hat of spherical convex shape in diameter from 6 to 15 cm and with brown scales. Champignons are first white and then brownish in color with a dry surface. The plates are whitish, slightly pink, and later brownish red with a brown tint. Leg is flat 3-10 cm long, fleshy flesh, with a delicate mushroom taste and smell. Champignons grow in meadows, pastures, in gardens and parks, it is especially good to collect them after rain.

Champignon

Common boletus

These edible mushrooms are very popular in cooking, they are cooked in every possible way. Brown birch trees have a cap color from light gray to brown, they have a pillow-shaped shape up to 15 cm in diameter. The pulp is white with a pleasant mushroom aroma. The leg can grow up to 15 cm in length, has a cylindrical shape, extended to the bottom. Common boletus grows in mixed, birch forests from early summer to late autumn..

Common boletus

Butterdish

Butterflies are one of the most famous edible eukaryotic organisms. Often they grow in large groups mainly on sandy soils. The butter hat can be up to 15 cm in diameter, has a chocolate brown color with a brown tint. The mucous surface is easily separated from the pulp. The tubular layer is yellow, adhered to the stem, which reaches a length of up to 10 cm. The flesh is juicy white, with time it becomes yellow-lemon, thick legs. Butterdish ordinary – easy to digest, therefore it is eaten fried, boiled, dried and pickled.

Butterdish

Real chest

These edible mushrooms grow in whole piles, which is why they got this name. The hat is thick, cream-colored, up to 12 cm (sometimes up to 20 cm) in diameter. The plates have yellowish edges, the leg is white, cylindrical in shape up to 6 cm in length. The pulp is dense, white with a pronounced pleasant smell and taste. This variety grows in mixed, birch, pine forests from July to the end of September. Before you go after the breasts, you need to know how they look and be prepared for the fact that they will have to look, because they hide under the foliage.

Real chest

Edible mushrooms

Eukaryotic organisms from this classification differ from previous ones in that they are forbidden to eat without prior heat treatment. Before starting cooking, most such instances must be boiled several times, changing the water, and some need to be soaked and fry. Check out the list of mushrooms that belong to this group:

  • champignon coppice;
  • morel cap;
  • spherical sarcosome;
  • Cobweb blue;
  • false chanterelle;
  • pink wave;
  • thyroid discine and others.

Cobweb blue

The fox is false

It can be found in summer and autumn in coniferous, deciduous forests. The diameter of the hat is from 3 to 6 cm, it is painted in a bright orange color with a brown tint, has a funnel shape. The pulp of false chanterelles is soft, viscous, without a pronounced smell, taste. The plates are orange in color, frequent, descending along a thin yellow-orange leg. False chanterelle is not poisonous, but can disrupt digestion, and sometimes has an unpleasant woody flavor. Mostly hats are eaten..

The fox is false

Pink pink

This eukaryotic organism has several names: erythematosus, volzhanka, whetstone, rubella, etc. The cap of the trefoil has the shape of a funnel with a hollow center, the color is pink-orange, diameter up to 10 cm. The leg is cylindrical, tapering to the bottom, up to 6 cm in length . The pulp of a wave is fragile, whitish in color, if damaged, light juice and a pungent odor will appear. Grows in mixed or birch forests (usually in groups) from late July to mid September.

Pink pink

Morel hat

The color of this eukaryotic organism depends on its age. Young specimens are dark, brown, and brighten with age. The morel cap is reminiscent of a walnut, all mottled with uneven stripes, wrinkles that look like gyrus. Its leg is cylindrical, always curved. The pulp is similar to cotton wool with a specific smell of dampness. Morel caps grow on moist soil, next to streams, ditches, and water. Peak harvest occurs in April-May.

Morel hat

Little-known edible mushrooms

There are different varieties of edible mushrooms, and when you come to the forest you need to know which of them can be considered inedible. To do this, be sure to study photographs and descriptions of eukaryotic organisms before a “silent hunt”. There are so rare specimens that it is not immediately clear what they are – poisonous inedible or quite suitable for eating. Here is a list of some little-known edible representatives of this wildlife class:

  • raincoat;
  • funnel tongue;
  • purple row;
  • garlic;
  • oyster mushroom pigeon;
  • scaly fleecy;
  • Polish mushroom;
  • gray row (cockerel);
  • dung beetle and others.

Funnel talker

Polish mushroom

It is also called a chestnut or pansky mushroom. It has excellent taste and is therefore highly regarded in cooking. The flywheel cap is hemispherical convex, from 5 to 15 cm in diameter, in the rain it becomes sticky. The top color is chocolate brown, chestnut. The tubular layer is yellowish, and with age – golden and greenish-yellow. The leg of the flywheel is cylindrical, can narrow or expand to the bottom. The pulp is dense, fleshy, with a pleasant mushroom smell. Mushroom chestnut grows on sandy soils under coniferous trees, sometimes under oak or chestnut.

Polish mushroom

Hairy flake

Such eukaryotic organisms are presented in several forms: flake, gummy, fiery, golden, and others. They grow in families on dead and living trunks, on stumps, roots, in hollows, and have medicinal properties. Often flakes can be found under the spruce, apple, birch or aspen. The hat is convex, fleshy, from 5 to 15 cm in diameter, has a yellow-honey color, the flesh is pale. Leg up to 2 cm thick and up to 15 cm high, one-color, scaly, on young specimens there is a ring. Scaly flake contains a substance used to treat gout..

Hairy flake

Garlic

The second name is the negligent ordinary. The hat is convex in shape, with age it becomes flat, with a diameter of up to 3 cm. The color of the crown is yellow-brown, light at the edges, the surface is dense, rough. The garlic flesh is pale, has a rich smell of garlic, due to which the name appeared. When the fungus dries, the smell is further enhanced. The leg is brown-red, light at the base, empty inside. Orbital ordinary grow in large families in different forests, choosing dry sandy soil. Peak Growth – July to October.

Garlic

Raincoat

They are not always taken even by experienced lovers of “silent hunting” and in vain, because raincoats are not only tasty, but also healing. They appear in meadows and pastures after rains. The diameter of the cap is 2-5 cm, the shape is spherical, the color is white, sometimes light brown, there is a hole for spores on top. The pulp of a raincoat is dense, but at the same time tasty, juicy, with age it becomes soft. Young mushrooms have spikes on the surface of the hat, which are washed off over time. The leg is small, from 1.5 to 3.5 cm in height, thickened. Raincoats grow in whole groups in parks and on lawns, peak harvest – from June to October.

Raincoat

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