How to distinguish edible mushrooms from inedible mushrooms with photos and videos. Names and descriptions of edible and inedible mushrooms

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How many fans awaits the start of the season to stroll through the woods in search of saffron mushrooms or chubby girls Fry the chanterelles, pickle the mushrooms, pickle the butter so that in winter they can taste it at the festive table. Unfortunately, not everything ends well, if you don’t know whether you collected it. Armed with useful knowledge of how to distinguish inedible species, every mushroom eater.

How to distinguish poisonous mushrooms from edible

You should not go to the forest if you do not know how to determine if a poisonous mushroom or not. Ask if an experienced person takes you on a quiet hunt. In the forest, he will talk more about edible varieties and show how they look. Read books or find information on sites. Only in this way will you protect your loved ones and yourself from mortal danger. Even one inedible specimen in a basket can lead to trouble if you do not distinguish it and cook with others.

Inedible species are dangerous in that they can provoke food poisoning, cause disruptions to the central nervous system, and lead to death. Experienced mushroom pickers recommend following the rules when collecting:

  • Do not taste – you can instantly get poisoned;
  • do not take if in doubt;
  • Do not cut dry, overripe specimens – it is difficult to determine their affiliation;
  • Do not collect everything in the hope of sorting out at home;
  • visit the forest with experienced people;
  • Do not collect specimens with a leg thickened below;
  • before departure, refresh your knowledge about the features of the species.

Mushrooms in the meadow

What do edible mushrooms look like?

Experienced fans of quiet forest hunting know how to distinguish edible mushrooms from inedible mushrooms. You will not be mistaken, you can put the copy you like in the basket, and then prepare it if:

  • there is a “skirt” on the leg;
  • there is a tubular layer under the hat;
  • a pleasant smell emanates from it;
  • hats have a characteristic appearance and color for their variety;
  • surface insects – bugs and worms.

There are species that are very famous and popular in the middle forest belt. They are known, collected, although among them there are specimens that have dangerous doubles. To get a unique taste, different cooking methods are required. Among your favorite types you should distinguish:

  • white – boletus;
  • lump
  • saffron milk cap
  • boletus;
  • honey agaric;
  • boletus;
  • oiler;
  • thrush;
  • fox
  • russula.

Brown mushrooms in the grass

What mushrooms are poisonous

How to distinguish edible mushrooms from inedible mushrooms? Poisonous varieties are often recognized by such signs:

  • color – have an unusual or very bright color;
  • adhesive cap in some varieties;
  • discoloration of the leg – when cut, an unnatural color appears;
  • the absence of worms and insects inside and on the surface – they do not tolerate fungal poison;
  • smell – it can be fetid, medicinal, chlorine;
  • lack of a tubular layer under the hat.

Inedible species contain toxic substances. It is necessary to carefully collect, to know the special signs of dangerous specimens in order to distinguish them:

  • pale toadstool – deadly poisonous, has a hat of a greenish or olive color, a leg thickened from top to bottom;
  • satanic – differs from white in red tones;
  • Amanita muscaria – has a bright hat with white dots, provokes the destruction of brain cells;
  • thin pig – has hallucinogenic properties when interacting with alcohol;
  • Amanita is smelly – it smells of chlorine, it is very poisonous.

Amanita muscaria in the forest

How to distinguish mushrooms

Among the variety of species, you can find poisonous specimens – doubles, similar to usable species. How to distinguish edible and inedible mushrooms in this case? The similarity is distant or very close. Doubles have such edible varieties:

  • white – satanic, biliary;
  • mushrooms, oil – pepper;
  • chanterelles – false chanterelles;
  • gruzdy – wow-talkers;
  • champignons – fly agaric;
  • honey mushrooms – false honey mushrooms.

How to distinguish false white mushroom

Inexperienced mushroom pickers can confuse a strong boletus with false species, although they are not very similar. The real white specimen is strong, dense, growing in groups, sometimes making up the path. It features a hat, the bottom is exclusively olive, yellow, white. The pulp is firm, dense, the smell is pleasant. If you make a cut – it will be white.

False are two varieties:

  • Gall – has a shade of pinkish color. Dark mesh on the surface of the leg.
  • Satanic – with a strong smell of rotten onions, differs in a velvety hat, flesh of yellow or red color. The leg is thickened below. It has a very bright color, which varies in height from saturated red to shades of green and yellow.

Left white mushroom, right gall mushroom

How to recognize false chanterelle mushroom

How to identify mushrooms edible and inedible, if both look bright and elegant? What are similar and by what signs can you distinguish foxes? For an inedible variety, the following are characteristic:

  • a bright, velvety, orange-colored hat;
  • smaller diameter – about 2.5 cm;
  • foul odor pulp;
  • leg tapering down;
  • a hat that looks like a funnel with straight edges;
  • the absence of worms – in the composition there is chitinmannosis – anthelmintic substance.

Edible chanterelles grow in groups in mixed, coniferous forests. Often have large specimens with a hat up to 10 cm. They are distinguished by:

  • a thick, dense leg that is not hollow;
  • the hat is down, has hilly edges, the color is not bright – from light yellow to pale orange;
  • the plates are dense, go down to the leg;
  • pressure pulp red.

Left fox, right false fox

How to distinguish edible and poisonous mushrooms mushrooms

The correct definition of honey mushrooms is of particular difficulty, since several edible varieties of different shapes are collected. They grow on stumps, tree trunks, in the grass, often in large groups. Good mushrooms can be distinguished by:

  • hats from light beige to brown with scales of a dark shade;
  • a ring on the leg;
  • cream or white plates under the hat;
  • pleasant smell.

Inedible honey mushrooms often grow alone. The difference from edible is the absence of a ring on the leg. Other features of inedible species:

  • bright-colored hat, red, orange, rust-brown, sticky and smooth after rain;
  • dark plates – green olive-black, yellow;
  • moldy smell;
  • black spots on the hat.
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