The content of the article
- What is an allergy?
- What happens to dogs
- Symptoms of a Food Allergy
- Symptoms of an Allergy to Insects
- Symptoms of Anaphylactic Shock
- Symptoms of an inhalation allergy
- Symptoms of Contact Allergy
If a pet itches, bites its tail, its eyes watery, and its belly becomes stained, allergies are more likely to occur. The owner’s task is to detect and eliminate the irritant, otherwise complications will appear. Combing the ears will cause inflammation and hearing loss, gnawing the skin will increase the risk of secondary infection. In severe cases, anaphylactic shock and death are possible..
What is an allergy?
This is the name of the pathological reaction of the immune system in response to a substance that has penetrated the body, which should not cause rejection. Most allergens are plant proteins, insects, and food. The longer the animal is in contact with the stimulus, the stronger the immune response.
Pathology develops according to the following scheme:
- Irritant protein enters the body.
- Immunity triggers a chain of reactions that trigger the production of substances to kill the allergen.
- In the blood, the amount of antibodies and mast cells secreting histamine increases. This element fights the irritant, causing local inflammation, which is manifested by redness, itching, swelling and other symptoms.
What happens to dogs
There are several classifications of allergies in pets:
- By type of allergen. The reaction in dogs often occurs with flea saliva, food. In many animals, it happens seasonal – for pollen, dust, mold. Also, immunity can give a negative response to drugs.
- On the way to the body. With food, through the respiratory system, by direct contact with the allergen (collar, flooring, litter).
- Reaction time. Symptoms in many cases develop gradually, but there are acute attacks that can result in anaphylactic shock and death..
- According to clinical manifestations. This includes dermatitis, bronchitis.
Symptoms of a Food Allergy
This variety is found in 10% of cases. The main irritants – wheat, barley, corn, soy, can be allergic to food in dogs. Hypersensitivity occurs in response to beef, pork, lamb, chicken. It is not so much meat that is guilty as antibiotics used to inject cattle. Milk may also be the cause of the pathology..
The reaction develops gradually. How dogs are allergic:
- urticaria, especially on the stomach;
- vomiting, diarrhea;
- falling out wool;
- chronic infections of the ears – the dog constantly shakes them, as if trying to get rid of a foreign object;
- swelling of the face – a severe case that speaks of anaphylactic shock.
In order to diagnose an allergic reaction in an animal, it is necessary to donate blood for testing. If this is not possible, try changing the diet. The body takes up to 12 weeks to remove product residues. During this period, the pet must diet and receive special anti-allergic food. Itching and spots do not disappear immediately, but gradually – it depends on the metabolism of the animal.
Symptoms of an Allergy to Insects
Often there is a flea allergy in dogs. It occurs if the pet is hypersensitive to insect saliva. The reaction manifests itself in severe itching: the dog begins to bite and scratch itself, often gnaws at the skin at the base of the tail. As a result, an open wound is formed, in which the infection can get.
To eliminate itching, doctors prescribe antihistamines, less commonly, corticosteroids. They block an acute allergic reaction, and the pet immediately feels better. If the dog is allergic to a bacterial infection, the doctor prescribes an antibiotic.
It is important that even one insect causes severe itching in an allergic dog, so owners should not forget to treat the pet with special means. Flea drops and collars have proven themselves well, but the latter can cause contact allergies.
Symptoms of Anaphylactic Shock
Inou animals has an acute attack that can result in death. It occurs with a very strong reaction to an allergen. This is mainly the bites of bees, wasps, hornets. Sometimes the cause of anaphylactic shock is a vaccine or other medicine. It is important to monitor the dog’s reaction after taking the new drug: immediately take the pet to the clinic at the first manifestations of deadly symptoms.
Signs of anaphylactic shock in dogs:
- swelling of the muzzle, throat, eyelids, auricles;
- severe redness of the skin, rash on the abdomen;
- labored breathing;
- involuntary urination;
- a sharp drop in blood pressure;
- shock state;
- blanching of the mucous membranes;
- cramps, coma, death.
Symptoms of an inhalation allergy
The reaction develops after inhaling the pollen of trees (cedar, ash, oak, etc.), grass, weeds, mold, and dust mites. In most cases, the problem is seasonal, but if the contact is constant (fungus, dust), it lasts all year.
Symptoms of allergies in dogs are severe itching, which is why the pathology is called inhaled dermatitis. The pet can rub its face, lick its feet, scratch the armpits. There are rarely nasal discharge (rhinitis), sneezing. Pathology can be controlled with antihistamines, but complete cure is rare..
Symptoms of Contact Allergy
This variety is less common than others. It manifests itself in itching and skin irritation in the area that was in contact with the allergen. The cause of the pathology is direct contact with pesticides, wool, synthetic materials. The reaction is often caused by flea collars that contain pyrethrins (a type of insecticide). Contact allergies can develop at any age, depending on when the dog first encountered an irritant.