The content of the article
- Key Features
- Benefits of the weekly
- How to breed Yezemalin
- Planting a manpower
- Care for the manpower
- Winter preparations
- Diseases and Pests
A hybrid of blackberries and raspberries is called ezemalin. Recently, he has occupied his niche in the garden areas of Russia. Despite the fact that this berry is not too popular, over time, the picture is slowly changing. The reason for this is the unpretentiousness in terms of care and soil, excellent productivity and good winter hardiness, combined with a small number of thorns. In addition, the bushes of Yezemalin grow quickly, but without competent garter, they will fill most of the site in a short time.
This hybrid has the main characteristics of maternal cultures, i.e. raspberries and blackberries. Visually, it looks more like the culture from which he inherited most of the properties. This plant was bred to increase winter hardiness, drought tolerance and raspberry productivity. It was not immediately possible to develop such undemanding and unpretentious hybrids. Many breeders have failed.
Ezemalin is a semi-spreading bush with shoots that grow parallel to the ground. The branches of the plant may rush first upward, and upon reaching a certain height, bend down. The bush is attractive and decorative throughout the growing season. White or pink large flowers become the original decoration of the garden compared to the inconspicuous flowering of raspberries. The berries of the culture are large, often have a bright color, are collected in brushes. Breeders were able to breed non-studded varieties, but many varieties have small spikes..
Cultivating a manpower requires knowledge of certain nuances. The plant is drought tolerant, therefore tolerates a lack of watering. This is possible due to the developed root system, which, unlike raspberries, penetrates the soil much deeper. The fruits are tasty and juicy, and in terms of yield, the hybrid is superior to raspberries. The berries can be stored for a long time, therefore, are well suited for transportation.
Benefits of the weekly
Females are useful for the human body. Yezmalina inherited the best from her ancestors. Its berries contain a large number of nutrients and elements:
- vitamins B1, B2, B3, C, E, K, B9, E;
- citric acid;
- malic acid.
Hybrid helps fight many diseases, for example, eliminates kidney and liver problems, is a prophylaxis of tumors and can be used as an antipyretic. Other useful qualities:
- Ezemalin helps restore immunity.
- Ripe berries are taken as a laxative for constipation. If you use unripe fruits, they will become a cure for diarrhea.
- Shrub leaves also have beneficial properties. Based on them, sweat broths can be made..
- Ezemalin has a positive effect on capillaries and blood vessels, contributing to their strengthening.
- The fruit has calcium, which is important for people with joint problems..
- The plant is a natural antiseptic and can be used as a remedy for sclerosis..
The first hybrid shrub was bred in the United States in the century before last. The then grade was called Logan’s Blackberry. It came from the name of the breeder, who brought this very variety of shrubs – Logan. In the future, new species of ezemalin appeared, which differ in properties. There are plant species with creeping stems, and there are species with straight ones. There are also varieties with and without thorns, with different colors, shapes and tastes of fruits.
Almost all varieties bear fruit for a long time. Berries can ripen within a few weeks, and unevenly. The fruits of some varieties of culture can grow up to 5 cm. Popular varieties are:
It is one of the valuable industrial raspberry-blackberry hybrids in North America and Western Europe. In the CIS countries is poorly distributed. The variety was bred in 1979 at the Scottish Research Institute of Horticulture – obtained by crossing Avrora, a raspberry-blackberry and Malling Jewel raspberries. According to information from industrial plantations in Europe, up to 20 tons of fruits are harvested from 1 hectare.
Among the red-fruited relatives of the Yezhemalin, Tiberberry stands out as very early. Berries of this variety reach a length of 5 cm and a weight of 5-10 g – they are tasty and juicy. The culture itself is simple and unpretentious in care, for which many gardeners appreciate it. There are more productive and larger varieties, but Tyberry captivates with a delicate aroma, amazing taste and unpretentiousness. The plant shows good resistance to various diseases and tolerates drought. The closest relative is Tummelberry, which is much more frost-resistant..
Ezemalin grows medium in size, has branches of the creeping type. Tyberry inherited from the blackberry such a disadvantage as poor separation of berries from the stem and the presence of small thorns on the branches. Fruits change their color as they mature. Tyberberry is inferior to industrial varieties in yield, but wins due to excellent taste. More about the characteristics:
- Productivity from an adult bush is 5-6 kg and an average of 3-4 kg per plant – the result depends on the volume of the bush, age. Flowering occurs in early to mid-May. Tiberberry ripens with early raspberries, ripening time – from mid-June. The fruiting period is on average 4 weeks.
- Fruits are collected in 5-7 pieces in hanging brushes. They are removed at the stage of technical ripeness (they acquire a bright burgundy color), or complete (the berries become maroon). Reveal your full aroma and taste in 3-4 days.
- Creeping shoots with a height of 2-2.5 m, sometimes up to 4-5 m – powerful, but very flexible, elastic. They are easily removed from the supports and bend. The branches of the first year are green, and the second is light burgundy. Along the entire length are covered with many small but soft spikes. Reproduction is possible as substitution shoots, and the method of rooting the tops.
- Dark green corrugated sheet, triple. The flower of the variety is large, has a white-pink and pale pink color..
- The fruits do not hide behind the leaves, so their collection is simple and easy. Fruit twigs are short. It is not recommended to place the Tiberberry in well-lit areas, experienced farmers advise to grow ezemalin in partial shade or in areas with evening and morning sunlight.
- High resistance to major diseases, excellent adaptation in any climate. Shelf life and portability comparable to a raspberry variety suitable for long-term storage.
- The degree of winter hardiness is moderate, so Tyberry requires shelter for the winter, in addition to the southernmost regions of the country. Seedlings that are planted in the fall season must be carefully covered.
This variety will amaze lovers of berries with sweetness, elegant subtle acidity and bright intense aroma. Productivity does not shine, but in terms of taste the equal of Boysenberry is very few. This raspberry-blackberry hybrid was bred in 1923 in California (USA) by R. Boyzen. It is a hybrid of blackberry, raspberry and logan berry. There are two types – with spikes and without them. It is grown in gardens, on industrial plantations. In the US, traditionally cultivated on commercial sites and household plots..
In the territory of the post-Soviet space and Europe, it was not widespread. It is positioned as a culture for small- and medium-volume production, or is not at all commercial due to low productivity and transportability. Ideal for gardeners who do not pursue volume and appreciate the taste. Detailed description of the characteristics:
- Boysenberry matures in late July and early August. In Russia, in the Middle lane, the ripening process occurs at the end of July, while the fruiting lasts until the middle or end of August.
- Yields at the raspberry level, and average compared to blackberries. According to approximate estimates, industrial productivity averages 6-10 tons per hectare.
- Berries are painted in dark cherry color. When fully ripened, tender, juicy, almost black, easily come off. The shape is slightly elongated, more oval. The average weight is 10-12 g, more on adult plants (5-6 year olds). Berries are collected in 5-6 pieces in a sagging brush. At the initial stage they are green in color, and then they turn red, become dark.
- The taste is refined, bright, with an excellent aroma. The berry is very sweet – the best in its class. Compared to Tyberry, sugar content and taste are definitely higher. True, too delicate juicy berries are poorly suited for transportation.
- The variety is presented in the form of a creeping bush, almost without thorns. Occasionally, spikes of 2-3 m vines are found. Medium flowers, white.
- The bush gives a lot of root offspring. The shoots of substitution are numerous, powerful with a rounded section. At the initial stage of development, they have a green color, but eventually take on a reddish color.
- Adult shoots of Boysenberry are highly branched, supple, flexible, 2-4 m long – do not need to be pinched. They are strong, but can be easily removed from the trellis for laying under cover for the winter period.
- Light green leaves are symmetrical, serrated, cirrus and pointed..
- The degree of winter hardiness is moderate, like many representatives of this berry culture. In almost all regions of the country, plants winter under shelter. With an unreliable shelter, there is a chance of freezing of the vine, fruit buds.
- Compared to other raspberry-blackberry hybrids, seedlings are well rooted. Survival is high.
This variety has sweet and sour fruits that ripen unevenly. The plant forms sprawling bushes with arched stems that reach a height of 1.5-2 m and require garters on the trellises. The shrub is notably resistant to frost, therefore, it takes root well in the middle zone of the country – Loganberry blooms in mid-June, and blooms for 1.5 months.
The Loganberry variety was accidentally obtained by the American breeder and lawyer D.H. Logan in 1881, which is why it is sometimes called the Logan berry. At that time, he wanted to develop a blackberry variety suitable for commercial cultivation. He crossed different varieties and varieties available in those years. Raspberries grew not far from the land with blackberries: pollination occurred, resulting in this variety of hybrid.
Loganberry turned out to be a very productive and unpretentious blackberry-raspberry plant, but the taste of berries was not the best. Over time, breeders managed to improve the variety. Modern Loganberry is not quite like the one that was grown in the century before last. Characteristics and detailed description:
- Shoots of medium length. Flowering occurs from mid-June to mid-August. Fruits ripen from August until frost.
- The berries are initially red, but darken as they ripen. The shape is elongated, large, weighing 5-6 g and 3-4 cm long. Sweet and sour on the palate, not all ripen. Fruits are transportable up to 5 days after harvest. Used mainly fresh.
- Loganberry is a high-yielding species. With proper care from one bush, you can collect up to 10 kg of berries.
- The branches must be tied to the trellis, otherwise they bend under the weight of the berries. When they reach a length of 2-2.5 m, you will need to pinch their tops.
- Leaves are dark green. There are thorns on the petioles of leaves and stems. On inflorescences, up to 20 flowers with pale pink petals are located.
- The plant is winter-hardy and resistant to many diseases characteristic of raspberries. Due to uneven ripening, difficult harvesting and not the best taste, Loganberry is not used in commercial fruit growing..
This hybrid of blackberries and raspberries has large berries with a diameter of 1.5 cm and a length of 3-4 cm. It is distinguished by good productivity and unpretentiousness to the soil. The most productive bushes in the favorable summer season can produce up to 4 kg of fruit. Their ripening occurs in early July. Tall and powerful bushes dotted with oblong berries, at this time of the year become a decoration of the garden.
Texas is a medium-ripening variety with a sweet-sour taste. It is generally accepted that he came through selection from the species Loganberry – the breeder who bred him was Michurin. Zoned in midland gardens due to its high resistance to low temperatures. On large shoots, many large berries appear, which are collected in clusters of 30 pieces. More about the characteristics:
- Young shoots of bushes are flexible and do not stretch up at all. If they are not tied to trellises, then as they grow they will spread along the ground. The bush is resistant to pests, diseases. After harvesting, old branches are cut, and young ones can reach a height of 4 m in one summer. In spring, they must be shortened to 3-3.5 m and then tied to a trellis.
- The fruits are dense, weigh up to 10 g. During picking, they come off with the stalks, like a blackberry. The fruit is edible and tender, in consistency similar to marshmallow. As they ripen, the berries turn red at first (at this time they are still sour), and then they begin to darken. In a state of full ripeness, the fruits acquire a dark crimson color with a barely noticeable waxy coating. Their taste is more raspberry than blackberry, and the aroma is pleasant, delicate.
- By ripening, the Texas variety is more like raspberries than its other ancestor. The shape of the leaves is also similar to raspberries, but in terms of the inseparability of the berries from the fruit (the main distinguishing feature) – closer to the blackberry.
- The hybrid has flaws, one of which is the strong rounding of the shoots. Not only branches are covered with curved down spikes, but also petioles and leaf veins. Another minus is the increased vegetative growth of substitution shoots.
- Compared to other varieties, planting and grooming is somewhat easier. This variety prevents root growth, which causes troubles during the cultivation of traditional forms of raspberries. Bush growth occurs due to an increase in the number of substitution shoots. When they are garter, they leave no more than 10 per plant per year..
- The Texas root system provides an opportunity to successfully grow this crop on one site for about 12-15 years without reducing yield.
How to breed Yezemalin
There are several breeding options for a hybrid of raspberries and blackberries. Seed is most rarely used, as seedlings grown from seeds do not preserve the properties that their parents possess. Common ways:
- To propagate the culture with erect shoots, root cuttings are used. To do this, in the spring, the roots are dug out of the soil. Optimal for reproduction are roots with a diameter of 7 mm. Planting material must be cut into 10-15 cm cuttings, and then planted, laying them horizontally in pre-prepared grooves.
- A convenient and simple way is to root annual shoots using layering. This method is applied to varieties of a hybrid with creeping shoots..
- The easiest way to propagate the culture using apical layers. To do this, in the spring season one of the climbing processes must be pressed to the ground, and then dug its top into the soil. From the kidneys that are underground, roots will gradually grow and new shoots will appear. In the future, the young bush will separate from the mother plant.
- There is still a method involving the propagation of culture by horizontal layering. Its essence is that shoots grown by 30-35 cm are bent to the ground, after which they are placed in previously prepared ditches (small) and sprinkled on top with soil. Then they are regularly watered, and in autumn they are covered with sawdust or peat from above. Each shoot in the spring will give about 3-4 sprouts. When their height reaches 10-15 cm, layering should be separated from the mother bush, cut into several parts, and then transplanted to a permanent place for further cultivation.
Planting a manpower
Despite the fact that this culture is considered unpretentious, when choosing a place for planting, consider a number of nuances. The plot chosen for the cultivation of the manor must be a little shaded. Presence of protection against cold winds is desirable. There should be no stagnation of moisture in the soil of the selected area. The hybrid bush prefers fertile, aerated soils. If the area is moist, then good drainage is required. The following actions:
- Decide on the planting scheme – these can be rows or single plants. In the first case, the branches can be run on trellises, and in the second – for each bush, individual support will be required.
- Landing should begin in the spring, when the snow cover has come off, and the ground has thawed, or in the fall. To do this, dig holes 40 cm deep, pour on the bottom of each hill of land and place a seedling on it. Alternatively, pebbles for drainage and organic fertilizer can be placed at the bottom. The distance between the bushes should be at least 1 m, and between the rows – 1.5-2 m.
- Spread the roots of seedlings in a neat manner. Fill the pit with the top layer of earth, which should be pre-mixed with humus – you can use the soil mixed with potassium-phosphorus fertilizers to backfill. If cultivation is carried out on acidic soil, then add dolomite flour or ash. To apply a lot of organic fertilizers during planting is not recommended, because they can accelerate growth at the expense of winter hardiness.
- Water the seedlings and prune their shoots so that their length is not more than 30 cm.The land between the bushes can be covered with cardboard so that caring for plants is easier and you do not have to constantly deal with weeds. You can sprinkle any mulch on it all summer – after a year the sheets will rot, turning into fertilizer.
Care for the manpower
Cultivating a manpower requires a serious approach to achieve good fruiting. The main thing for this unpretentious hybrid is the creation of optimal conditions for development, further growth. Follow a few rules:
- Mulching. Mulch is used to often not weed out and constantly not water the bushes. The material for it can be compost, humus, grass, paper. Laying is done in layers. The first layer should consist of several sheets of newspaper or cardboard, sawdust, grass, ash and manure should be laid on top. You can avoid the germination of weeds next to the hybrid culture if you put the mulch in a 10-15 cm layer. Newspaper paper or cardboard will gradually decompose, and the substances laid on top will turn into humus, which will give the soil all the useful substances, elements. You need to mulch every spring..
- Tying up. Trellis is used for this purpose – this is necessary so that the culture does not spill over the entire site in a chaotic manner. Stakes for garter will not work, because with them, the berries will be smaller in size, and the shrub itself will still gradually sprawl. Tapestries help preserve the pristine appearance of the bush and keep it in check. They should be arranged in at least 5 rows..
- Circumcision. Hybrid must be constantly trimmed. Pruning is done in autumn, or rather, late, when the bush has finished bearing fruit. Perform this procedure before freezing occurs, otherwise the shoots will not be cut, but simply break. It is necessary to completely remove those shoots that have dried out, broken or are superfluous. Circumcision can be done at the beginning of the spring season, when the sap flow in the plant has not yet begun. In this case, you will need to wait until the snow melts. After that, immediately remove the old shoots and branches that managed to freeze over the winter. After cutting, pinch all the top shoots.
- Top dressing. All bushes of the hybrid need to be fed. Use those fertilizers that are optimal for the soil of your land. Nitrogen is considered an indispensable fertilizer in any soil. Buy it and dilute it before use according to the instructions. A lot of nitrogen is found in nettle infusion and manure diluted with water..
Ezemalin is considered a frost-resistant plant, but this does not mean that the bushes do not need procedures that will help make it more resistant to low temperatures. The culture must be prepared for wintering, for this, follow several procedures:
- If planting was carried out in the fall, then cover the plants for the winter. In the middle zone of the country, this culture is sheltered in order to avoid freezing of the kidneys. Until the freezing occurs, the shoots must be removed from the support, and then laid on the ground. Flexible, flexible lashes are easy to shape – it is not difficult to bend and tilt them. Leaves, straw, spanbond or any other covering material are laid on top for insulation. Too wrap the bushes should not be, otherwise you can provoke the aging of the kidneys. Shelters are removed in the spring when a steady temperature of + 10 degrees occurs. Scourges must be lifted and distributed on the trellis, and mulch the ground under the bushes.
- If you live in a region where there is a lot of snow in winter, it is not necessary to carry out such shelters with organic material. Snow cover will replace shelter and warm shrubs.
- In some cases (for example, if you live in a region with relatively warm winters), to prepare the plants for wintering, for all shoots that have reached 2 m in a year, you need to pinch the tops. This procedure improves hybrid branching. With long side shoots, you can also carry out this manipulation.
Diseases and Pests
Ezemalin is extremely resistant to a number of infections, but the main danger for it is anthracnose. If you are going to use fungicides to solve the problem, then note that the final treatment should be carried out a month before the start of the harvest. In this case, it is forbidden to exceed the dosage and concentration specified in the instructions, otherwise the collected berries will be filled with chemistry.
A good alternative to chemicals is a decoction of nettle or horsetail. To enhance the beneficial protective effect on the plant, you can mix both compounds, and then process the resulting bushes with the resulting mixture. Cooking broths:
- Pour a kilogram of horsetail with cool water. Allow the composition to infuse for a day, then boil – about half an hour. Before spraying, dilute the broth with water in a ratio of 1: 5.
- Instead of horsetail, nettle can be used. Preparing a decoction of it will take significantly more time. Infuse with nettle should be up to two weeks. Before spraying, it is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10.
There is another tool for spraying hybrid shrubs. For 10 l of ordinary water, add any of the following substances in the indicated dosage:
- 50 g of soda (calcined);
- 200 g of ash;
- 1 kg of manure (fresh);
- 100 g of colloidal sulfur.
As for pests, they are few. There are several parasites that can cause hybrid damage:
- raspberry beetle;
- Galicia (Gilitsa).
If you notice pests on the shoots and foliage of the culture, then carry out the treatment with special means. For example, chemical methods of struggle are used against raspberry beetle. If the pest population is large, then Karbofos is used. In case of severe damage, the preparations Spark, Fafanon are used. Kinmix solution, Inta-Vir, Fosbetsid, Actellik, Confidor chemicals have gained some distribution..
Than resorting to the use of chemicals, it is better to thoroughly do preventive measures. They include proper fit, mulching, good care. Remember that birds are also protectors of the garden. Create several birdhouses and feeders on a cultivated land. Birds will cope superbly with insects, but when the hedgehog begins to bear fruit, they can eat berries. The way out of this situation is to cover the culture with a net.