The content of the article
- Growing mushrooms at home for beginners
- Growing mushrooms as a business
- How to grow mushrooms at home
- In the garden
- In the basement
- What mushrooms are grown at home
- Methods for growing mushrooms
- Mushrooms at home – technology
- Under what conditions can mushrooms be grown
- Production equipment
- How to grow oyster mushrooms at home
- White mushrooms
Most people perceive the mushroom trip to the forest as a pleasant pastime. But silent hunting is extremely dependent on the season, weather and climate of the region. Few people think that mushroom cultivation can be beneficial, but the most common varieties can be grown at home on an industrial scale..
Growing mushrooms at home for beginners
Mushrooms are an ingredient with a minimum of calories and fat, high in potassium, fiber. The process of growing them is extremely simple, but, like any other enterprise, it requires certain preparatory steps. Observing the basic rules of mushroom gardening, you can provide a product not only to your family, but also make substantial profits by renting mushrooms for sale. Where to start growing mushrooms? Find out how the whole process goes step by step:
- First, decide on the species that you are going to grow. The most popular and easiest to cultivate are oyster mushrooms, shiitake, champignons. There is no particular difference in the process, but the nutrient medium changes for each species.
- Buy mushroom picker. It looks like sawdust, in which a mushroom mycelium is sprouted – the root system or “seed”. In fact, these are seedlings or seedlings, if we draw an analogy with ordinary garden plants. The substrate with mycelium can be bought in an online store (the cost is relatively low). Growing oyster mushrooms, other edible species from spores is a troublesome process, it requires good practice and a long time.
- Creating a breeding ground. Straw and sawdust must be sterilized to kill all extraneous microorganisms. They can compete with mycelium, even absorb it. One of the methods of sterilization is the steam heating of the medium material until the moisture completely evaporates. Hot steam treatment of the dry substrate is important here..
- To spread mycelium throughout the nutrient medium, it must be warmed up. Sawdust or straw with mycelium already added is evenly distributed on a baking sheet or in a shallow but wide pan. Then the capacity is placed on the heat pad, which will maintain the temperature (21 degrees Celsius). The culture medium is left in a dark place for 3 weeks..
- After 21 days, mycelium grown in a nutrient medium moves to a dark place with a constant temperature of about 15 degrees Celsius. For these purposes, the cellar is quite suitable. Sawdust or straw is covered with a small layer of clean soil and richly moistened, but not poured. To control humidity, you can put a towel on top and moisten the soil additionally as needed..
- After another 3 weeks, the first fungi will appear. The environment needs to be constantly maintained raw to help mushroom growth. The room must be without lighting for the maximum amount of time.
- The first crop can be harvested when the cap is fully formed and structurally separated from the legs. Mushrooms need to be cut, not picked, so as not to damage future fruits.
Growing mushrooms as a business
A business plan for cultivating mushrooms does not require serious expenses. Mycelium can be purchased everywhere, the price of it “does not bite.” The main thing that is required is a room with the ability to regulate humidity and temperature. As practice shows, the mushroom growing business pays off after the first harvest. The costs of maintaining growth are negligible, therefore, net profit is obtained after a month, while the profitability is the maximum.
How to grow mushrooms at home
Breeding mushrooms at home is not a costly process, bringing a quick income. The main thing is to create suitable conditions for growth (described above) and maintain them. For personal consumption, some craftsmen will convert the pantries or balconies of their apartments. It is possible to achieve a greater result in making a profit using a garage or basement. In this case, you can safely do the main work. Mushrooms do not require constant care, weeding and watering.
In the garden
Growing mushrooms in the country or in the garden is even easier than indoors. For the location of the mycelium, a moist and shaded place is selected. From the nearest buildings and trees, you should indent about half a meter. It is important to remember that forest species of mushrooms do not tolerate the proximity to fruit trees. It is better to cultivate them not far from the species familiar to them in the forest: brown boletus trees near birch, aspen mushrooms near aspen. There are several options for breeding on the ground:
- Disputes. To do this, you need to collect overripe hats, which are skipped during the usual “silent hunt”. Even wormy specimens will do. They need to be placed in a bucket, filled with rain or river water, add sugar or sourdough, knead to a smooth mass and left for a period of several days to a week (the contents must be stirred periodically). Then strain through a large sieve. The resulting liquid mass should be diluted with water (1 part of the mushroom mass to 100 parts of water) and water the area from an ordinary watering can.
- Mycelium. To do this, dig a piece of soil with mycelium and plant in moist soil. It should also be kept moist during transport..
- Ready mycelium. A grain or compost base with mycelium filling, purchased at a low price, is planted according to the instructions. This method is the easiest for those who want to achieve the fastest result..
In the basement
Growing mushrooms in the basement is much easier than indoors on the surface – a suitable microclimate is constantly maintained here. Regardless of the species that will grow, you should prepare a basement before germination. Walls and floors are disinfected with any of the antiseptics. After this, the room is thoroughly ventilated. The ventilation openings are covered with a fine mesh grille so that insects do not get inside..
Depending on the type of mushroom, racks or suspensions are installed (their cost is low). With a large basement area, it can be zoned into two parts – for incubation and for growth. The most important thing is the temperature and humidity, which must be maintained at the same level. In all other respects, mushrooms are extremely unpretentious and grow independently.
What mushrooms are grown at home
The idea to grow mushrooms at home, first of all, will ask you a question – which species to choose? Almost all “home” mushrooms do not require extra effort for breeding. Mushrooms can be called an exception, but they will not be a problem for an experienced gardener. Therefore, you have to choose only from personal preferences and the desired profit (if you plan to organize a mushroom business). The most popular species can be divided into two groups:
- wood – shiitake, oyster mushrooms, winter mushrooms;
- soil – champignons, rings.
Methods for growing mushrooms
Depending on the desired result, there are two ways to grow mushrooms – extensive and intensive. For gardeners who do not seek enrichment, the first is more suitable. For those who care about regular yields, you should pay attention to the second. The difference between them is the same as between the natural breeding of chickens and obtaining broilers.
- Extensive – independent growth of mushrooms in the natural environment on the site. Harvest – the same as in nature. But the same dangers – pests, changing weather, mycelium diseases.
- Intensive – active cultivation in prepared conditions – basement, on the balcony, pantry. Requires competent preparation of the nutrient medium, control of humidity and temperature.
Mushrooms at home – technology
The traditional technology for growing mushrooms has been described above – a prepared environment where the mycelium is placed, regular watering and light regime. After 3 weeks, the first result appears. An alternative method of growing is more laborious. Growing on logs or stumps of deciduous trees requires a long preparation stage (drying logs, cutting holes). The result will be only in a year. The plus can be called unusual types of mushrooms that can be grown – boletus, chanterelles, reishi.
There are alternative ways of mushroom growing at home: ready-made kits purchased over the Internet, growing on coffee grounds. They look more like a kind of hobby than real breeding for food and sale. The result will be a minimum yield of the finished product. This option is especially interesting for children of preschool or school age as a home experiment..
Creating mushrooms for growing mushrooms – 40% of the time spent on breeding. At the same time, experienced mushroom growers prefer to grow mycelium on their own, so as not to depend on sellers, because even time-tested suppliers can fail. Mycelium is grown on a grain substrate or wooden sticks. It depends on the type of future mushrooms..
An artificial substrate for growing mushrooms is the basis in which the mycelium develops. In its chemical and mineral composition, it should be as close as possible to natural soil. The prepared substrate mass with the correct composition (depending on the type of mycelium) will give a higher yield in the absence of pathogenic factors and natural pests.
Under what conditions can mushrooms be grown
The conditions for the cultivation of fungi of various species do not differ from each other. At the time of incubation, the growth temperature (21 degrees Celsius) and high humidity of the substrate are maintained. During growth, it drops to 13 degrees with the same level of moisture. The maximum time of the mycelium and the sprouted bodies are without direct access of light. Slight nuances are found only in the species of mushrooms..
Equipment for mushroom production at home can be easily assembled with your own hands. For the incubation period, you will need an electric furnace with a temperature regulator. Stands for placing the substrate are shelves for trays, if it is soil types. In the case when the substrate is in bags, it is hung on the crossbars or directly to the ceiling. Actually, this is the minimum set for starting a business.
How to grow oyster mushrooms at home
The technology for growing oyster mushrooms is considered the most optimal for home conditions (can be found in the video below). The finished substrate with mycelium is placed in PVC bags for their entire volume, which must be placed half a meter apart. They are installed on the floor or suspended, cuts of 2-3 cm are made in the film for growth and evaporation of excess moisture. The temperature in the room is about 20 degrees Celsius. Watering – 1 time / day.
Shiitake mushrooms (pictured) are grown according to the usual “bag” technology. Hardwood sawdust is used for the substrate. It is important to pay attention to the size of the sawdust. Too small fraction will lump into lumps and prevent aeration of the mycelium. The rest of the technological process is completely identical to the method of cultivation of oyster mushrooms.
Cultivation of porcini mushrooms is best done on natural soil in a personal plot. But the harvest will be extremely natural, that is, once a season. Room removal requires a constant temperature of 8-12 degrees, good ventilation of the room with a humidity of 90-92%, every day you need to turn on dim lighting for a short time.
Growing champignons at home is considered the most expensive (in preparation), but quite profitable. Most expensive will be the purchase of mycelium and preparation of the substrate. The soil should be initially high in minerals and trace elements. Humidity is maintained at 80% at a temperature of +12 degrees. The rest of the process of cultivating champignons is no different from porcini mushrooms..