# Surge Protector – An overview of the models. Why do I need a surge protector, device and choice for household appliances

## The content of the article

Each house has a lot of electronics, household appliances. I want her to serve as long as possible without suffering from sudden power surges in the electric network, which happen for many reasons: turning on a powerful device, short circuit at substations, atmospheric overvoltage, other complex transient processes.

## Surge Protector – what is it

Keep the equipment in good condition will help the mains voltage filter. This is a device that protects the equipment from interference and voltage surges in the network. Outwardly, it may look like a conventional extension cord, but the difference is that the network extension cord is equipped with a special unit that mitigates the effects of sudden surges in electricity.

### What is it needed for

The passport of each household appliance indicates the frequency of the input voltage according to GOST (50 Hz), but the indicators in the network are far from ideal. Around us there are many consumers of electricity: someone makes repairs and turned on the grinder or does welding, at the nearest factory, production facilities were turned on at the same time, and a substation failed. All this will make the network voltage unstable, and this will affect the operation of sensitive computer equipment, televisions.

Consider why a network filter is needed and what is the principle of its operation using mathematical functions as an example. The change in the frequency of the AC voltage in the network occurs along a sinusoid (a smooth arc oscillating many times per unit time). In addition to this, high-frequency (100 Hz to 100 MHz), and low-frequency pulses, voltage peaks, changes in amplitude, shape distortion, and jumps occur. This does not look much like a smooth sinusoid (harmonic), but is more similar to a cardiograph, and besides, a lot of such curves are simultaneously recorded.

For normal operation of household appliances, it is necessary that there is one smooth sinusoid, so all other harmonics and impulse noise must be discharged and not allowed to receive electric current to the receiver. All this work is performed by a filter extension equipped with an integrated circuit that absorbs all frequency errors. For large differences, a fuse is provided, which burns out when overloaded, de-energizes the devices. Filter outlet is best used with a voltage regulator.

### Device

If the kind of current passing through the resistors does not affect their resistance, then the capacitive and inductive resistances directly depend on the frequency of the current. The higher the frequency of the current, the greater the resistance of the induction coil. This inductance property is used in the device to smooth out high-frequency noise (sinusoids with short periods). For this, two coils with an inductance of 60 to 200 μH each are placed in series with the load in the zero and phase conductors.

Low-frequency interference is damped by the resistance of the induction coils or by a resistor with a resistance of not more than 1 Ω, arranged in series. LC filters, which consist not only of induction coils, but are also supplemented by a capacitor (0.22-1.0 μF capacitance) connected in parallel with the load, can filter out interference most effectively. The voltage of this capacitor is selected so that it exceeds the mains voltage at least twice, taking into account possible differences.

A semiconductor element – a varistor will help to cope with pulsed short-term interference. If the voltage in the network is low, then the varistor acts as a resistor of high resistance and does not pass current. As the voltage rises to the nominal value of the varistor (470 volts), the semiconductor resistance decreases, and current pulses pass through it. So, if the varistor is turned on parallel to the load, then high voltage pulses will be absorbed by it, temporarily smoothing their effect.

A true filter outlet should consist of:

• two coils with inductance from 60 to 200 μH, sequentially to the load;
• varistor 470 volts connected in parallel with the load;
• a 0.22-0.1 uF capacitor connected in parallel with the load;
• 1 ohm resistor to suppress low frequency noise (if necessary).

Most cheap options in practice are not. They consist only of a varistor and a bimetallic contact for maximum protection. However, it is easy to assemble the LC circuit with your own hands and it will work no worse than the factory one. Although if the house has only ordinary powerful household appliances, then they do not need filters, since the quality of electricity does not affect them, and the electronics (computer, TV, music center) consume a small amount of energy and an extension cord with a nominal current of several amperes.

A sophisticated modern consumer, before choosing a photo catalog and buying a surge protector, carefully examines the ratings and customer reviews. Buying any product in the online store is now simple, since each seller takes care of the maximum provision of information about the characteristics of each position in its range. Here is a brief overview of popular devices from global manufacturers..

### With USB

When overheating and short circuiting, the device responds to automatic shutdown, preventing damage to electrical appliances and the occurrence of a fire. Network with USB ports provides protection against surge and high-frequency interference of several devices at the same time. A big advantage – there are USB ports on the case for charging tablets and smartphones.

APC PM6U-RS:

1. Price – 2800 rubles.
2. Features: total power – up to 2.3 kW, on the case there are two USB ports (2.4 A each) for charging tablets and smartphones. The LED indicator on the case will in time warn about malfunctions in the power supply network or damage to the fuse. 2 meter cable. White body.
3. Pros: design, does not take up much space, three outlets on two sides of the device, type –eurostandard with grounding, USB.
4. Cons: not detected.

Buro BU-SP5 USB 2A-W:

1. Price – 990 rubles.
2. Product specifications: equipped with standard 220 V sockets in the amount of six pieces. One USB port with a current of 1 ampere and a second port of 2.1 amperes serves to recharge mobile gadgets. Cord length 5 meters, white body.
3. Pros: narrow, does not take up much space, European standard sockets with grounding on one side of the device, USB availability, inexpensive.
4. Cons: not detected.

### For UPS

When overheating and short circuiting, the device responds to automatic shutdown, preventing damage to electrical appliances and the occurrence of a fire. Network for UPS is used to connect household and electronic equipment to an uninterruptible power supply. Operating time depends on the capacity of the UPS battery built into the device..

ExeGate SPU-5-0.5B:

1. Price – 172 rubles.
2. Product specifications: 0.5 m cord length, the black case is designed for 5 outlets with grounding. It is used to connect household and electronic equipment to an uninterruptible power supply, which is equipped with a C13 connector.
3. Pros: rated voltage – 220 V, maximum pulse – 90 J, total load power – 10 amperes, low cost.
4. Cons: not detected.

Garrison EHW-0:

1. Price – 200 rubles.
2. Product specifications: white case, cord length 0.5 m, there are 6 European standard outlets with grounding. It is equipped with a C14 connector, a power switch with a light indicator. On the housing there is a hole for mounting to the wall in a vertical position.
3. Pluses: rated voltage – 220 V, total load power – 2.2 kW, rated current – 10 amperes, maximum pulse – 90 J, withstand current noise – 2.5 kA, low cost.
4. Cons: not detected.

### For computer

All connectors are grounded; cord length varies by model. Surge protectors for a computer from Pilot are well-thought-out functionality. They have European standard sockets and one Soviet-style. A computer pilot is also suitable for household appliances. A button with an LED disables all devices from power. When overheating and short circuiting, the device responds to automatic shutdown, preventing damage to electrical appliances and fire.

Pilot L:

1. Price – 1200 rubles.
2. Characteristics: a cord 5 meters long can serve as a conventional extension cord, rated voltage – 220-230 V, total load power – 10 amperes, 6 outlets, including one of the old type.
3. Pros: comfortable, functional.

Pilot X-PRO:

1. Price – 2300 rubles.
2. Characteristics: cord length – 1.8 m, rated voltage – 220 V, total load power – 2.2 kW, rated current – 10 amperes.
3. Pros: original design in the form of a gray trapezoid, resembling a fantastic spacecraft, 6 outlets, including one of the old model.

### For washing machine

A modern automatic washing machine, especially its electronic part, is very sensitive to interference in the network, and therefore needs protection. Surge protectors for household appliances will reliably protect all home appliances from overheating and short circuiting. There is no need to buy large filters for these purposes, compact models, presented by the following items, are suitable.

Pilot Single:

1. Price – 1240 rubles.
2. Characteristics: a small ergonomic case is equipped with one European standard socket, there is no cord, the rated voltage is 220 V, the total load power is 2.2 kW, the rated current is 10 amperes.
3. Pros: models have a compact design, you can take them with you on a trip.
4. Cons: stationary without a cord.

Inter-Step SP-ONE (1140J):

1. Price – 555 rubles.
2. Characteristics: stationary for a washing machine without a cord, maximum interference voltage – 220/240 V, rated frequency – 50 Hz, total load – 350 kW, maximum load current – 16a, maximum pulse interference current – 1950 kA, maximum dissipated energy – 1140 J , color – white, additional features – protection against a thunder-storm. The small case is equipped with one European standard socket.
3. Pros: compact size.
4. Cons: not detected.

### With a switch for each outlet

The device guarantees protection against surge surges and high-frequency interference of several devices simultaneously. The surge protector with a switch for each outlet is good in that you can control the power supply to each switched on device. When overheating and short circuit, the fuse is triggered to automatically turn off, preventing damage to electrical appliances and the occurrence of a fire.

MOST ERG in a white case:

1. Price – 1030 rubles.
2. Features: rated voltage – 220 V, rated current – 10 amperes, total load power – 2.2 kW, 5 Euro-type outlets with grounding, cord length – 5 m, 5 buttons with LED backlight for each and one common, disconnecting the power supply throughout device.
3. Pros: convenient control of the operation of each individual device.

MOST EHV in a black case:

1. Price – 1250 rubles.
2. Characteristics: rated voltage – 220 V, rated current – 10 amperes, total load power – 2.2 kW, 5 Euro-type outlets with grounding, cord length – 2 m, 5 buttons with LED backlight for each outlet and one common, disconnecting power during all device.
3. Pros: convenient control of the operation of each individual device.

### For LCD TV

The device guarantees protection against surge surges and high-frequency interference of several devices simultaneously. The line filter for the LCD TV protects video equipment, telephone lines, and local networks from short circuits and high-frequency interference. When overheating and short circuit, it is triggered by automatic shutdown, preventing damage to electrical appliances and fire.

APC PMF83VT-RS:

1. Price – 3000 rubles.
2. Features: maximum connector and RJ-11, LED indicator, output power – 2.3 kW, load current max – 10 amperes, output voltage – 230 V, 8 sockets with grounding located on both sides of the cable 2 m long, protection of the antenna TV input , a separate switch for each outlet, so that you can control the power supply for each switched on device, and one common switch.
3. Pros: beveled fork for positioning the filter in a narrow space between furniture.

MOST Elite ERG:

1. Price – 1000 rubles.
2. Features: LED indicator. The output power is 2.3 kW, the load current max is 10 A, the output voltage is 230 V, 5 sockets with grounding, a cable 5 m long, a separate switch for each socket so that you can control the power supply to each device, and one common switch.
3. Pros: sockets are located on one side at an angle of 45 degrees for ease of connection.

### With grounding

Grounding is the main condition for the safe use of outlets. The power supply filter with grounding guarantees protection against surge surges and high-frequency interference of six devices at the same time, these are the main advantages. In case of overheating and short circuit, the filter operates on automatic shutdown, preventing damage to electrical appliances and the occurrence of a fire.

Defender DFS 805:

1. Price – 1200 rubles.
2. Characteristics: output power – 2.3 kW, load current max – 10 A, output voltage – 230 V, 6 sockets with grounding, cable 5 m long, one common switch with LED indicator.
3. Pros: modern design and safety.

APC PM5U-RS:

1. Price – 2350 rubles.
2. Product specifications: sockets protected by curtains, two USB ports, cord length 1.83 m, output power 2.3 kW, load current max 10 amperes, output voltage 230 V.
3. Pros: the device is equipped with 5 sockets, one of which is located at a remote distance to turn on massive power supplies.

## How to choose a surge protector

The selection of the line filter is based on the following characteristics of the device:

2. Number and type of outlets.
3. Power cord length.
4. Fuses.
5. The presence of a light indicator (backlight button).
6. The presence of a USB connector.

A home appliance can easily be protected by a filter having a rating of the load current of 10 A. If it is supposed to connect office appliances, then the calculation of the load power will be completely different (16 A-20 A). The higher the maximum pulse load indicator, the greater the fluctuations in the network the device will withstand. Some models can withstand even the effects of a lightning strike..

By the number of devices that are planned to be connected to the extension filter, the number of sockets in it is determined. If this is an extension cable for a computer, then it is reasonable to assume that you will need to connect a system unit, speakers, monitor, printer, voltage regulator, router and other devices, so you need to choose a device with five or six outlets. Sockets must be European standard with grounding.

As for the length of the cord, here everything is individual. As a rule, 1.8 meters are enough for a house, but there are cords for 3 and 5 meters. In any case, it is better to take with a margin, suddenly you want to make a house swap. An important point when choosing – the presence of fuses and their type. Some manufacturers supply devices with several fuses – fusible, thermal and high-speed. Most devices are equipped with an indicator of the functioning of the device. the difference is that the LED turns off immediately when one of the protective elements of the device becomes unusable.

The best surge protectors to date are recognized by the following brands:

• APC
• Vektor;
• Defender
• Pilot
• Buro;
• DNS

These companies produce devices:

• simple, the purpose of which is basic protection (Essential);
• optimal with advanced (Note / Office) protection and value for money;
• with professional (Performance) protection of expensive equipment.

Recommendations for use:

1. Do not connect filters to each other, as this will lead to an increase in current on the ground phase..
2. Do not connect appliances with a high input voltage (refrigerator, air conditioning, vacuum cleaner, heaters).
3. It is undesirable to connect the device to an uninterruptible power supply – protective circuits will be damaged.
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