The foundation for the house – how to calculate and make a project, varieties and technologies of the device

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In the construction of housing, one of the main structures is the foundation for the house, which can only be selected taking into account the soil and the load from the object itself. These are the main factors that influence the choice of one or another option. For a private house, several types of foundation are suitable at once. All of them differ in type of construction, materials used and their price, installation technology. The foundation project is the foundation of the whole future home, so you need to be serious about choosing a specific type. The information with photos and videos below will help you with this..

Types of foundations for a private house

The main classification, which describes what are the foundations for building a house, takes into account their design and the weight for which they are designed. In its pure form, tape, columnar, monolithic and pile are distinguished. In some cases, combinations thereof are used. For example, a tape around the perimeter of a building with pillars or piles in the center. It all depends on the amount of load that the base is experiencing from the private house itself..

Tape

The name of the strip foundation is due to its appearance. These are belts dug into the ground, which are supported by slabs. They perceive the weight from the above lying structures and transfer it to the ground. More often, such tapes are performed around the perimeter of the building and at the location of the load-bearing walls. There are two options for how to properly build the foundation – monolithic and precast. In the first case, the formwork is constructed, after which concrete mortar must be poured into it, and in the second, separate elements are used, for example, foam blocks, but concrete, rubble stone or foam concrete.

Finished tape around the perimeter

Columnar

The cheapest option is columnar. A minimum of materials is required here. The design itself is a pillar, immersed to a certain depth or concrete mixture. The latter is immersed in advance in the drilled well. For one-story cottages, this option is considered optimal, especially if it is light wooden. An inexpensive columnar foundation for a house can also be monolithic or prefabricated. In the first option, you need to dig wells in which concrete is poured, in the second – collect columns from blocks or masonry.

Arbor base

Monolithic plate

The most expensive and reliable is the slab foundation for the home. It is a monolithic surface, slightly buried in the ground or lying on it. The thickness of the plate can vary from 0.3 to 1 m. For stability, it is reinforced with metal rods with a diameter of 12-25 mm. A plate is used for very high loads from the number of storeys (usually more than 2 floors) or on weak soils. The plate evenly distributes forces over its entire surface. It happens:

  1. Monolithic. The most common option when the entire area under the building is poured with concrete mortar up to 50 cm thick, depending on the calculated mass.
  2. Caisson. Suitable for light buildings – wooden or metal frame or from gas blocks. This is a lightweight and economical option..
  3. Swedish plate. It is used in the construction of SIP-panels or frame. Only suitable for well-drained soil..

Monolithic-tiled version

On stilts

A bit similar to a columnar pile foundation for a home, but it is more expensive. It is used on unstable soil or when strong soil is located very deep – sand, quicksand, with a close location of groundwater. Even significant weights are easily transferred to piles, which are joined by a grillage on the surface. They can be wooden, metal, concrete with reinforcement. According to the principle of deepening piles can be:

  • screw – twist into the ground;
  • driven – they are clogged with a special hydraulic hammer to failure;
  • stuffed – concrete is poured into a pre-drilled well;
  • indented – indented by hydraulic pumps.

Pile screw base

Which foundation is better

It is difficult to determine exactly which foundation of the house is better. It all depends on the mass, i.e. number of storeys of the building, such as soil and budget. The most common and often used is tape. It is suitable for buildings with a basement and can withstand even heavy loads. Plate is better to use in case of large volumes. Pile is mainly used in case of insufficient strength of the soils at the construction site. Columnar is best used for light structures, for example, small wooden summer cottages.

How to choose the right

It has already been said above what the choice of the foundation for the home depends on. These are a number of factors, of which it is important to consider each. The availability of groundwater and its level, the depth of freezing of the soil, whether the basement is planned according to the project, affects. For some, you even have to make a calculation. Others can often be found on the Internet – the freezing depth for a particular region. You can learn them from organizations involved in construction. This is especially true for soil types and the location of groundwater..

Groundwater availability

One of the first factors affecting the laying of foundation structures is the groundwater table (groundwater level). To determine it, a minimum of 4 wells are drilled in the corners of the proposed structure. Their depth should be 50 cm lower than the expected level of the sole. The complexity of the choice will be only with a high occurrence of water. It will require bedding, waterproofing material, drainage and insulation. The base itself is chosen as follows:

  • with an AHW below 1.5 m – a shallow plate or tape;
  • above 0.5 m – only pile, and better from screw piles, because they are cheaper;
  • below 0.5 m – a shallow plate, columnar is suitable.

Groundwater pile

Soil freezing depth

Equally important is the determination of soil freezing. The base sole should lie below this level. This will help to avoid lifting structures due to frosty swelling of the earth. Moreover, for unheated rooms, freezing increases by 10%, and for heated rooms it decreases by 20-30%. It is measured from the ground level or the basement floor, if any.

Foundation and soil types

Only a professional geotechnician can tell you exactly how to determine the type of soil. But this can also be done by the characteristic features of the soil at the construction site. In any place almost always lies several varieties of soil. Of these, the main ones are as follows:

  1. Rocky or clastic. This is a rock mass that does not swell and does not freeze, but it is difficult to erect a structure on it, but it can be shallow.
  2. Sandy. Sand particles of different sizes, not prone to heaving, are easily compacted, but require preparation to strengthen the walls of trenches and pits.
  3. Clayey. The most difficult due to the high heaving rate. In most cases only piles are suitable here..
  4. Dusty clay. The bases are not suitable for pouring at all, as they freeze and swell a lot..

Marking up the space

Foundation calculation

To build the foundation correctly, you will have to make several calculations. The first one is called collecting weights. It is necessary to determine the mass of all structures that will be located above the ground. Based on this value, the optimal base is selected. Next, you need to define a few more values. This is the area and depth of laying. The latter is determined depending on the freezing. These are the main recommendations that describe how to calculate the foundation for a house..

Project and calculation

Weight calculation at home

The primary task is to determine the weight of the house. It takes into account many values, so it is better to use a special online service. It is called a home weight calculator. There, you will only need to enter the characteristics of the future building, which you will find in the project. In addition to quick calculation of values, the calculator will offer you a sequence of calculations with a detailed explanation of all the steps.

Soaring house

Calculation of the area of ​​the foundation

The instruction on how to calculate the area of ​​the foundation depends on the chosen type of structure. For tape, you need to calculate the length of the entire tape – this is the perimeter of the building. Further, this value is multiplied by the width of the base, resulting in an area. In general, it is calculated as follows – S = yn * F / y with * R 0. The values ​​used in the formula are:

  • S is the desired area (cm2);
  • yn = 1,2 – reliability coefficient;
  • F is the calculated load on the base, i.e. building mass (kg);
  • R 0 – estimated soil resistance at a depth of 1.5-2 m.
  • Another value in the formula y with is the coefficient of working conditions:
  • 1,0 – for plastic clay, stone walls of the building;
  • 1,1 – for plastic clay, but under wooden or frame walls;
  • 1,2 – weak plastic clay, soil – silty sands;
  • 1,2 – coarse sand, long structure;
  • 1.3 – fine sand, any structures;
  • 1.4 – coarse sand, non-rigid structures or hard, but long.

Ready base of the house

How deep should the foundation be?

Given the freezing of the earth, the depth of the foundation under the house is determined. The soil has a high or low heaving index. In the first case, the sole is located below the calculated level of freezing of the earth. In the second version, it can have a height of 0.5-1 m. On coarse sand or rocky soil, a laying depth of about half a meter is allowed.

How to calculate materials

Building a foundation is the calculation of the materials themselves. It will be necessary to determine the amount of concrete mix, reinforcement and piles. In some cases, the volume of the required brick is also calculated, for example, for a columnar foundation. The data obtained will help to avoid unnecessary expenses. Including transport. In addition, this generally reduces the construction time of the building..

Concrete quantity

It makes no difference whether you decide to order work on the construction of the base or mount it yourself, to estimate the necessary volume of concrete will not be superfluous. It is very easy to do. The calculation is carried out according to one simple formula. You need to take the area value already calculated above, multiply this number by its height. The result is scope of construction. This is how much concrete is needed on the foundation.

Pouring concrete

Armature and wire

Somewhat more difficult to calculate the amount of reinforcement. It all depends on the type of foundation, the type of soil and the weight of the building. The larger the last factor, the thicker the reinforcement should be. It should occupy at least 0.001% of the cross section of the base of a structure of any type. This applies to ribbed reinforcement. Smooth is only a binder, so it will need less than 1.5-2 times. The wire for knitting reinforcement is taken at the rate of 20-30 cm per connection.

Formed frame

Pile calculation

To calculate the pile foundation, you will need the value of the required area calculated above. In the formula, it is the main quantity. It must be divided by the cross-sectional area of ​​one pile. The result will be their number. For example, the required area is 6 m2, and the cross section of the piles is 0.3 m2, then the following is obtained – 6 / 0.3 = 20. The result – 20 piles are required.

Bath layout

How to make a foundation

In order to properly build the foundation for the house, it is important to step by step markup, then build the formwork, after which it will already be possible to fill the concrete mixture. These steps are suitable for prefabricated structures. Only instead of pouring the solution, it will be necessary to lay all the elements in a certain order. Formwork is required only for columnar, strip and slab types. Pile is mounted without it.

Markup

Even before the start of excavation work, they mark the corners and sides of the building according to the drawn scheme. This will require simple materials and tools – a rope, cord or fishing line, which would be noticeable on the background of the earth. Still need to stock up on tape measure and pegs to indicate angles. Step-by-step instructions on how to make the layout of the foundation:

  1. Drive one peg into the base corner of the building, any of your choice.
  2. Then, in the direction of one of the walls, measure 4 m. Drive another peg, connect with the previous rope.
  3. Then go to the adjacent wall. From the first peg, measure 3 m in its direction, drive in another peg, connect them.
  4. Measure the distance between unconnected pegs – it should be 5 m (the rule of the golden triangle, or Pythagoras).
  5. Adjust the pegs so that the sides are 3, 4 and 5 m.
  6. Then stretch the rope to the required length of the walls. Perform other right angles in the same way..

Rope marking

How to fill

The next stage after marking is pouring the foundation. It is better to place the concrete mixer in the immediate vicinity of the place of its device. It is necessary to fill all at once or so that the number of concrete layers does not exceed two. Each of them must be sealed, for example, with a reinforcement bar or with a special vibrator. At the end of the work, the finished structure is covered over the entire area with a layer of film or roofing material in order to protect it from weather factors. Concrete gains design strength after 28 days.

Concrete mixture pouring on reinforcement

Formwork

In private construction, the installation of temporary formwork is more often used. It performs the role of a socle in the construction of tape, slab or columnar. For its installation, you can use second-rate wooden blocks and boards. They make special shields that are installed around the perimeter of the trenches. To connect using nails or screws. After installing the shields, you need to make clamps that add rigidity to the formwork. The shields themselves are additionally backed by slopes.

Removable wood formwork

Foundation price

The cost is the price of all materials used. They can be checked only with manufacturers. Costs will relate to preliminary work – excavation of soil, delivery of materials and possible additional labor. Approximate prices for the Moscow region are shown in the table:

Name of work or materials

Price, rubles

Mechanized digging trenches 50 cm wide per linear meter

160

Cushion of crushed stone and sand per linear meter

90

Imported concrete mix (M300), 1 m3

3500

Concrete laying work, 30% of its cost

3500 * 0.3 = 892

Fittings, 1 rod with a diameter of 14 mm

38

Work on the installation of a single bar reinforcement

12

Formwork

chipboard 12 mm, per 1 m2;

210

bar 50×50 mm;

60

self-tapping screws;

60

installation work, per linear meter.

120

Total for 1 running meter

5142

Total

5142 * L, where L is the length of the foundation

Excavator digs trenches on the site

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