The content of the article
- What are warm beds
- Device principles
- Varieties of warm beds
- Warm Bed Hill
- Recessed bed
- Do-it-yourself warm beds
- When to make a warm bed
- Where to do
- What to do
- What to plant in a warm bed
- How to make warm beds
- In the spring
- In the greenhouse
The arrangement of warm beds is a universal technology in agriculture, used in spring and autumn, in a greenhouse and in open ground, based on compost heat generation. Applying this technology, the gardener plants vegetables earlier, and receives a crop longer than under normal conditions. There are several types of beds, choose the one that suits you.
What are warm beds
With this technology, organic residues, decomposing, generate heat, heating the roots of vegetable crops. Plants better tolerate spring temperature changes, mature faster. The decomposition of organics forms nutrients, vegetables are fed during the season, there is no need for additional organic fertilizers.
The basic principle of the device is that heterogeneous organics are laid in layers. The deeper, the rougher the layers should be – branches, stems and chopped trunks are placed at the bottom. This layer will be “fuel”, drainage, providing air access. The next layers are smaller – newspapers, shredded branches, grass. Before placing the next layer, it is necessary to water the previous one well so that the layers do not dry out. An important rule is that raw materials must not be affected by disease or rot..
Varieties of warm beds
There are four types of beds. If the site is located close to groundwater, you can construct a high bed – it is not afraid of spring flooding, if the site is dry – deep – it needs less watering. With the help of different species, you can maximize the useful area of a summer cottage plot for planting vegetable crops. An important condition: it is necessary to water formations often, since the work of microorganisms that process organics is possible only in a humid environment.
A bed located on the ground is called high. Its height ranges from 50 to 80 cm. The main principles of its structure:
- turf is removed (10-15 cm);
- the bottom is filled with a drainage layer with sand or gravel;
- the garden is enclosed by a wooden box, which is impregnated with an antiseptic;
- rough organic materials are laid on the drainage layer – branches, chopped tree trunks, etc .;
- the second layer consists of small organics – tops of garden plants, weeds;
- the third layer is made up of residues that can decompose over the season – humus, foliage;
- each layer is well watered and tamped;
- the top is covered with fertile soil, its thickness should be at least 20 cm.
Warm Bed Hill
A variety of high beds can be considered a bed-hill or “hilly ridge Holster.” The principle of laying out the layers is the same, only it is not enclosed by a wooden frame, and the edges are rounded. Outwardly, it resembles an embankment, about 1 meter high. This warm flowerbed with your own hands is convenient in that it increases the useful area of the garden: its surface is wider than the base. Filling:
- first layer (depth 30 cm): coarse organic residues. Experts believe that a warm bed of sawdust helps to increase the friability of the soil;
- second layer: shredded branches, leaves;
- third layer: foliage, green organic residues, soil;
- the upper layer is covered with straw.
The opposite of the device is high – buried or trench, it is necessary with difficult irrigation or in regions where the soil warms up for a long time after winter. It serves longer than high or hilly – about 8 years. For it, a trench is excavated with a depth of at least 2 bayonet shovels, sand is poured at the bottom of the trench, then layers of biofuel. Gardeners, to protect the layers from cold deep soil, offer to lay the bottom with closed plastic bottles. Further filling of the buried beds is similar to the previous ones..
If the summer cottage is located in places of underground water, you can build a combined garden. This is a shallow trench with a drainage layer on the bottom on which the box is installed, so that part of it is in the ground and part above the ground, 30-50 cm high. The combined bed is filled with the same material as the rest, the top layer should be flush with sides of the box. The care and watering of all species is the same, except for one difference – less often watered in-depth.
Do-it-yourself warm beds
This technology has earned the love of gardeners in that it is universal: with its help, a garden can be arranged anywhere. Even on barren soils, warm beds will bring a good harvest. An additional advantage of the technology is that beds of any type can be made with your own hands from improvised material. They do not require laborious care, and, subject to simple rules, you can grow any vegetable crops on them.
When to make a warm bed
This method can be used in spring and autumn. The season does not matter in the device, the differences are only in the composition of the biomaterial of the upper layer. If you make a warm bed in the fall, layers of fresh organic matter – leaves, small branches – any organic garbage will go into it. It is made after harvesting: in October, November – before frost, so that it decomposes during the fall and winter. In spring, after the snow melts, already rotted manure, compost, the upper fertile layer of soil are laid, it is made a month before vegetable seedlings.
Where to do
This technology has been successfully used in northern regions with climatic conditions that are unfavorable for agriculture. The plants planted using this technique are not afraid of temperature changes. The beds are located in any convenient place on the site, well lit by the rays of the sun. In the southern regions this technology is ineffective, it is hot in summer, sunny and there is no need for additional heat.
What to do
The convenience of the method lies in the fact that the layers are filled with any organic residues, the material does not need to be procured or purchased. It can be:
- For the first layer – wood residues, removed turf (it is laid with grass down), cardboard, newsprint, old clothes. Experienced gardeners are not advised to lay large trunks – ants can start in them.
- For the second and third layers – vegetable tops, sawdust, straw, fallen leaves, humus, upper fertile soil layer, food waste, weeds. There should be no seeds in the tops, and the root system of weeds must be carefully chopped so that they do not grow.
- Production of boxes is possible from improvised materials. Wooden sides are popular, but they can also be laid out from brick, from slate, from plastic panels. It is possible to make concrete if the bed is arranged for a constant time.
- The bottom must be laid with a fine metal mesh so that mice who like such structures do not start.
- It is important to ensure that the layers to be laid consist of healthy materials, without rot. For this reason, experts do not advise filling the layers with leaves from fruit trees – they are susceptible to diseases and insect attacks.
What to plant in a warm bed
This bed has been working for 4 years. The first year, while the heat transfer and the maximum amount of nutrition, plants are planted, demanding heat and the amount of fertilizer. In the following seasons – less demanding vegetables:
- the first season – planting cucumbers, zucchini or pumpkin;
- in the second – cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage;
- third season – growing peppers, tomatoes, beets, carrots;
- the fourth – unpretentious beans, peas or greens.
How to make warm beds
The disadvantages of this technology are called frequent watering and labor costs when arranging. However, the complexity is paid for by the availability of materials and ease of maintenance:
- no need for frequent weeding and loosening;
- no need to buy and fertilize;
- in the autumn, after harvesting, it is much easier to clean the garden;
- can be done anywhere on the site, even on the most infertile soil.
Warm beds in the fall allow you to start planting in the spring almost a month earlier than in the open ground. They differ from spring only in the amount of biomaterial:
- Prepare a place, depending on the type (buried, high, etc.) – dig a trench or, having removed the layer of earth, enclose with sides.
- Lay out the drainage layer: branches, chopped trunks well tamp and pour. Under the drainage, lay out a metal mesh from rodents.
- Then lay out layers of small organic material, ramming each and pouring with warm water. A layer with fresh tops can be shed with a potassium permanganate solution to prevent the development of rot. It is not recommended to use tomato and potato tops; the solanine contained in nightshade inhibits the decomposition process.
- The top layer is the removed ground mixed with manure.
- Cover with straw or film on top to start the process of “burning”. By spring, the layers will compact, leaving room for fertile soil.
In the spring
If you did not take care in the autumn, you can make warm beds in the spring with your own hands, the main thing is that they are ready to start planting work:
- Do as soon as the snow comes down.
- The principle of layer-by-layer laying is the same as in the autumn, with the exception of the top layer – instead of fresh manure, take rotted or fall asleep with compost.
- Mix compost with a layer of fertile soil and fill up the top layer.
- Pour with warm water and cover with a film. As the film dries, remove and water the film.
- You can plant early vegetables in the finished garden in early May.
In the greenhouse
You can arrange warm beds in the greenhouse with your own hands. This will allow to plant seedlings in mid-April, without fear of freezing seedlings:
- In greenhouses, as a rule, they make combined ones; they do not require large areas. Optimum width and depth 40 cm, length – as the size of the greenhouse allows.
- The principle of bedding is identical to the previous one..
- After filling all the layers, cover the top with a film for 2-4 weeks. After this time, the film is removed, the soil is moistened, as soon as the earth settles, you can make holes and plant seedlings.