The content of the article
- Signs of fire
- How to behave in case of fire
- In a private household
- Apartment building fire
- In a public place
- Actions in case of fire
- What to do with strong smoke in the room
- Fire Safety Rules
- Procedure for fire in transport
- Fire Reminder for Children
Each person should clearly know what tactics of behavior in an emergency to choose. By correct, clearly debugged actions, you can save not only your own, but also other lives. It is very important to understand how to behave in a fire. There are different instructions for dealing with fire in a private building, apartment, public place, in an open area.
Signs of fire
According to statistics, the vast majority of hazardous fires occur due to human faults. Natural causes are much less common: for example, a lightning strike. The faster you notice that a fire has begun, the faster you will understand what to do to save and eliminate the flame. Key features:
- increasing smell of burning;
- the appearance of acrid smoke cutting eyes;
- the smell of burning rubber;
- flashes of flame and the sound of crackles;
- the lights in the room begin to burn badly or go out completely.
A fire in any room (residential, public) and transport, as a rule, begins with the appearance of smoke, which is barely caught at first, and then becomes caustic, hurts the eyes. The smell of burnt rubber, which comes from burning electrical wiring, joins it. A little later, the lamps will become dimmer or the light will go out completely.
In open areas, smoke may not be noticed (it depends on the direction of the wind, speed). It will smell like burning wood or grass..
The most characteristic signs of a fire are flashes of light, crackling and loud whistling sounds: it looks like firewood is burning somewhere nearby in the stove.
How to behave in case of fire
The action algorithm is slightly different based on what and where it caught fire. The general rules of conduct reflect the following memo in case of fire:
- You must call rescuers as quickly as possible. Sometimes people mistakenly believe that they can eliminate the fire on their own, and spend precious time. Tell the dispatcher detailed information about the facility and the incident. There is a safety rule according to which the person who called the rescuers must arrange a meeting for them, clear the road, provide quick access to fire.
- Fire and panic are categorically incompatible concepts. When you fall into hysteria, you expose yourself to mortal danger. Do not make rash acts.
- Do not risk your life for the sake of saving material values: money, jewelry, art objects, etc..
- Help everyone get out of the room or get away from the source of ignition.
- Disconnect object.
- Trying to put out the fire yourself, clearly distribute the forces, evaluate the possibilities. With its excessive distribution, you must have time to get to a safe place..
- Close windows and doors tightly in case of fire in a confined space.
If you help evacuate or want to put out a fire, follow these rules:
- Before entering a smoke-filled room, wrap your head in a wet blanket or sheet..
- If you have to open windows and doors to rooms, do this as carefully as possible. An influx of fresh air forms, causing a powerful fiery flash.
- When evacuating, move only along the flights of stairs, do not try to ride the elevator.
- To save in case of fire and heavy smoke, you need to move closer to the ground.
- If your clothes start to burn, drop to the floor and roll intensively, trying to bring down the flame. If you see that this happened to one of the victims, immediately put on a person a coat, duvet cover, curtain or any large piece of cloth and press it very firmly.
In a private household
Actions in case of fire in a residential building:
- Call the fire department. Provide the dispatcher with the most detailed information about the incident..
- Help everyone out in the house get out.
- Try to turn off the electricity, shut off the gas.
- Cover your mouth and nose with a cloth dampened in cold water. Try to move closer to the floor: stand on all fours or bend.
- Do not open windows, doors if you are not going to evacuate from the building.
- If the fire in the house is small, try to fight it with a fire extinguisher, ice water, strong matter, sand.
- If the flame spreads rapidly, leave the house.
- If you can’t get out, get to the window, pay attention to passers-by.
- Meet firefighters, show them the most convenient and shortest way to the facility.
Apartment building fire
Tactics depend on the specific location of the fire. Actions in case of fire in the apartment:
- Urgently inform the fire department about the incident by contacting the numbers “01” or “112”.
- Make sure that there is no chance of electric shock. If it persists, try to turn off the power..
- Fire in the apartment, after having de-energized it, you can try to extinguish it with water. Also try to eliminate sources of ignition by covering them with a thick, damp cloth..
- Do not use water to extinguish flammable liquids and substances. They can be well sprinkled with earth or sand, covered with a dense wet cloth. It is best to use a special powder fire extinguisher.
- If you can’t eliminate the burning yourself, consider a plan for evacuating from the apartment. When you get out, immediately inform the neighbors and rescuers about the danger (if you have not had time to call them).
- With strong smoke and very high temperature, crawl toward the exit.
- If you can’t leave the house because of the fire, go to the balcony, shutting the door tightly behind you. Scream out loud to draw attention of passers-by.
- If you managed to get out of the apartment without hindrance, wait for the firefighters, tell them as much as possible about the place of ignition, the reason, other details of the incident.
Actions in case of fire in the basement of an apartment building:
- Call Rescuers.
- Notify neighbors about the incident.
- If smoke begins to enter the apartments, open them for ventilation..
- Do not try to get into the basement and put out the fire yourself.
- If you are in the room where the fire occurred, move faster to the exit crawling.
What to do if a fire in the porch:
- Call rescuers, report fires to neighbors, help evacuate.
- If the smoke is small, try to find a source of ignition and localize.
- If there is a lot of smoke on the sites, leave the porch immediately. If you can’t get down the stairs, go to the nearest balcony and wait for help.
In a public place
First you need to understand if you can leave the room. To make sure that there is no fire behind the door, put your hand on the canvas or iron handle. If you feel a fever, open it. Moving indoors to the exit, avoid those where there is a lot of smoke and a visibility limit of up to 10 meters.
What to do if a fire in a public place has not blocked the exits:
- Use the main and emergency escape routes. On the walls there should be evacuation plans that you will choose.
- It’s better to move on all fours, because the dangerous combustion products accumulate at about the level of growth of an adult and above. Cover your mouth and nose with improvised means, such as wet clothes.
- If no one follows you, close the doors tightly behind you.
What to do if the neighboring rooms are too smoky and you can’t get out:
- Do not panic. Call the rescue service at “112” or “01” (“101)”.
- Go to the room farthest from the fire.
- If possible, completely cover the body with a wet blanket. An alternative is to wet all your clothes heavily. Be sure to cover your mouth and nose with a damp cloth..
- Check if you can go down the fire escape or climb the roof.
- If evacuation from the premises is not possible, it must be reliably sealed to protect against smoke and fire. Close doors, windows, windows, vents tightly. Plug all the slots. If there is water in the room, periodically wet the doors, floor.
- Move around the room on all fours, especially if it is filled with smoke. Cover your nose and mouth with a damp cloth (sleeve, scarf). Get to the window and try to get the attention of passers-by on the street..
Actions in case of fire
The danger is that with this phenomenon, a fire can start and spread very quickly, it will be difficult to eliminate it. There are many causes of fire in electrical wiring – for example, a short circuit or wear as a result of prolonged use. What to do when ignited:
- Disconnect the room.
- If you smell burning plastic, unplug the appliance. Cover the source of fire with a thick cloth to extinguish. If there are indoor plants in the room, fill the hearth with potted earth.
- Water and foam fire extinguishers can be used only if you completely cut off the electricity in the room, but it is better to refuse it. For apartments and private houses that cannot be completely de-energized, powder products are suitable.
What to do with strong smoke in the room
Combustion poisoning is very dangerous. According to statistics, more people die from it during fire than from burns and other contact with the flame. What to do with heavy smoke:
- Close windows and doors, plug gaps with dense, damp cloths. Any draft increases the flow of smoke into the room. If possible it is advisable to close the ventilation openings..
- Protect your airways by covering your nose and mouth with a wet, natural cloth (linen, cotton). Experts recommend: if there is no water at hand, wet something from the clothes with your own urine. A scarf, a hem of a dress, a sleeve of a sweater will do. Urine is a much more reliable filter for combustion products than water, and will protect you from poisoning much better..
- Leaning as low as possible, move to the exit. You can move on all fours or crawl.
- Once out of a smoky room, seek medical help sooner.
Fire Safety Rules
While spending time in an open area, not everyone follows safety rules. Even very experienced and tidy tourists have a chance to face a fire occurring through someone else’s fault. What to do in case of an accident in an open area:
- Call the rescuers. Numbers – “112”, “01”. If possible, notify forester, rangers. If you are in nature with a large company, then send one person for help to the nearest settlement or highway.
- Try to find out the cause of the fire. Approach the closest but the safest distance to an open fire.
- Try to determine what is burning and how much, what kind of fire occupies the area. Try to find out the speed and direction of the wind.
- Do not overestimate your capabilities. If the fire is very large, do not waste time, but evacuate.
- If the source of ignition is small, you can try to extinguish it yourself. Knock down the fire with a damp cloth, a sheaf of branches. Water from personal supplies or a nearby body of water.
- If you understand that a peat bog is burning nearby, then as soon as possible move away from this place and report the incident to the Ministry of Emergencies. Being near a fire or in smoke is deadly..
- You can try to extinguish the burning grass on your own, if the territory is not too large. Use water, dry soil to backfill. It is best to stay away from reeds or reeds. It’s impossible to put out them without the help of specialists, they will continue to smolder.
- Getting out of the fire zone, move perpendicular to the direction of fire. Head to the clearing, pond, road, wide meadow.
- If you can’t get out of the burning area, don’t panic. Enter the nearest body of water or lie down on the ground and cover yourself with wet clothes. Cover your mouth and nose.
Actions during a fire in a summer cottage:
- Call the fire department.
- Warn residents of all nearby homes.
- If possible, help people who remain in the buildings save.
- For self-extinguishing the flame use fire extinguishers, snow, sand, water.
- Ask people not involved in the quenching.
- To prevent the fire from spreading to other buildings, irrigate them with cold water.
Procedure for fire in transport
The greatest danger lies in the fact that such fires begin almost imperceptibly. Often people learn about a fire in transport only when they smell smoke and burning. If the car caught fire, then you can extinguish it only on your own.
The fire spreads so fast that the rescuers just do not have time to get to the scene of the accident.
What to do if ground public transport is on:
- Quickly inform the driver of the danger so that he immediately stops the transport. Open the doors by pressing the emergency exit button.
- If possible, use a fire extinguisher (must be available and in good condition in each vehicle).
- Evacuate yourself and help others. Open emergency hatches, side windows.
- Cover your nose and mouth with a cloth – handkerchief or sleeve. So you do not get carbon monoxide when breathing.
- When you get out of a burning vehicle, get away from it and call the rescuers.
What to do in a train in case of fire:
- Report the fire to the conductor or engineer using an intercom. Follow the instructions received from them..
- If contact could not be made, in an organized manner, along with other passengers, go to another car. Report the incident to other guides.
- If you cannot contact any of the employees, stop the train using the stop crane. Leave the car through windows or doors, helping other passengers.
What to do if the subway car is on:
- Try to eliminate the fire. Use fire extinguishers, alcohol-free liquids, tight clothing.
- Protect your airways by covering your nose and mouth with a cloth.
- Find a technical tool for communication and signal to the driver about the emergency.
- If the fire intensifies and diverges, try to move to a safe distance. Lie on the floor and wait until the train reaches the station where they can help you. Stop crane in the subway is not recommended. The train rushes very fast, and you are more likely to be safe if it goes.
- If you are stuck in the middle of the tunnel, do not start to evacuate until the driver announces that the paths are de-energized. Get out of the car by breaking or squeezing the glass. If you can, help other passengers. Quickly go along the rails in the direction where the train was traveling.
Fire Reminder for Children
Small members of society should be clearly informed about what to do in a dangerous situation. Reminder for the child on fire behavior:
- Call rescuers by calling 112 or 01.
- If you can get out, leave the dangerous territory as quickly as possible. Do not try to collect your favorite toys or other things.
- By the exit, move on all fours or crouch, or rather crawl fast.
- Protect your face with a wet dressing. Breathe only through her.
- Close the doors tightly behind you.
- If you are in an apartment building, go downstairs to the lower floor, not the elevator.
- Having run outside, urgently tell about the incident to adults.
What to do if you can’t get out of the burning room:
- Do not let fear and panic take hold of yourself.
- Do not climb under the bed, in the linen closet and in places where it will be difficult to find you.
- Move to the balcony. Slam the door tighter and loudly ask for help from passers-by.
- If there is no access to the balcony, close in the room furthest from the hearth of the flame. Plugging the cracks more tightly with wet rags.
- Do not attempt to extinguish household appliances with water..
- Do not open windows and doors, this will provide oxygen flow, resulting in increased combustion.