The content of the article
- What is an orchid transplant for?
- When do I need to transplant an orchid?
- Transplant Reasons
- Soil replacement frequency
- Is it possible to transplant a blooming epiphyte
- How to transplant an orchid at home
- Substrate preparation
- Tools and equipment for the procedure
- Rules for transplanting orchids at home – step by step instructions
- Orchid after transplantation – care features
- Watering a plant
- Organic fertilizer dressing
Today, floriculture is experiencing a real boom in the cultivation of exotic plants. Cultures growing in hot climates are becoming more accessible for lovers of indoor flowers. Their decorative leaves and flowers of extraordinary beauty add sophistication to home gardens. One of the favorite growers of temperate latitudes of tropical plants is an orchid. In order for her to please her owners with long flowering, it is necessary to study the information on proper care of her and timely transplantation.
What is an orchid transplant for?
Transplanting an orchid is necessary for a planned transplant and in an emergency. You need to understand that this procedure is stressful for the plant, so it’s worth it to be careful and competent to treat it. During the life of the plant organism, the soil in which it grows is depleted. Over time, the flower is not able to receive from the substrate the necessary trace elements and other nutrients. It is urgent to transplant it when it rots or becomes infected with pests of the root system.
When do I need to transplant an orchid?
Breeders bred a lot of hybrids of orchids that feel great in apartments, so there is no definite answer when you need to transplant this flower. It all depends on its flowering period. Representatives of orchids can bloom up to 6 months at different times of the year. After this, it is necessary to create conditions for three months of rest for tropical crops, during which they must gain strength before a new outbreak of peduncles. It is better to transplant flowers after flowering, if necessary.
It is not difficult to care for the orchid if you know the rules that will provide it with comfortable living conditions. It is necessary to undertake a transplant if:
- The pot used to grow the flower has become cramped. The root system of a plant develops as fast as the ground green mass. If the roots are so entangled that they displace the substrate and occupy almost the entire part of the pot, the flower will experience a nutrient deficiency. The flower grower must understand that it’s time to transplant the plant.
- The substrate in which the flower grows has decomposed into small pieces or turned into dust. Crushed pieces of bark are the basis of orchid soil. During the life of the plant, they are stratified and decomposed into a small fraction. Such a substrate allows air to pass through worse; its drying is slower. Liquid accumulates in the pot, soil moisture exceeds the permissible level. This can cause rotting of the substrate and the roots of the flower..
- The roots do not look healthy. If the process of decay or drying of the roots is noticed, it is urgent to transplant the flower in order to identify the causes of dysfunction of the root system and restore its normal functioning.
- By external (and other) signs, the presence of a plant disease or the presence of insect pests was detected. At the same time, its leaves begin to turn yellow or become lethargic. This situation belongs to the category of emergency causes of transplantation, because there is a threat of the death of orchids.
If the florist detects the above symptoms, it is necessary to carry out all the necessary steps for an orchid transplant as soon as possible. It will happen in the spring, autumn or at another time of the year – it does not matter. It is necessary to consult the lunar calendar, choose the next favorable days, and perform a transplant. For many orchids, September-October is the best period for this..
Soil replacement frequency
The soil for orchids is changed once every two to three years. If the substrate consists only of bark, transplantation should not be done earlier than once every three years. For some types of orchids, a necessary addition to the substrate is sphagnum moss, peat and other components. Such crops are preferably replanted every two years. Do I need to transplant the purchased flower? More often orchids are sold blooming. If there is no urgent need – a threat to the life of the plant, it is not necessary to transplant it immediately. Better to do it after the flower fades..
Is it possible to transplant a blooming epiphyte
When flowering, each plant spends tremendous energy on the emission of peduncle. At this time, it is very vulnerable. Any change in the conditions of the flower, up to the rearrangement of the pot to another place, is perceived by the plant organism as a negative factor. It is not worth transplanting a blooming beauty at this time, so as not to expose her to new stresses. Adaptation to a new soil takes a lot of orchid vitality. A flower transplant during flowering sometimes even leads to its death.
How to transplant an orchid at home
You can transplant a flower correctly if you first stock up with the knowledge, the necessary equipment and the necessary components for composing the substrate. You can buy ready-made soil for orchids. To be sure of the quality of the ingredients of the substrate, it is better to prepare it yourself. It is necessary to prune the peduncle of the phalaenopsis orchid after flowering. Thanks to this, phalaenopsis will have the opportunity to adapt faster to new soil. Cut the peduncle with a sharp secateurs 2 cm above the lowest kidney, sprinkling a slice with crushed activated carbon (ground cinnamon).
Depending on the lifestyle, all members of the orchid family are divided into two groups: epiphytes and land plants. Epiphytes (translated from Greek the word means “on a plant”) grow on trees. Using the bark of a tree (rock stones) as a support, they adapted to receive a sufficient amount of light, moisture, nutrients, without touching the soil of the equatorial forests. The second group – ground orchids live like most plants, getting everything they need from the soil.
The basis of the soil of epiphytes (odontoglossums, oncidiums, dendrobiums, cattleya, phalaenopsis, etc.) is pine, oak or birch bark. The necessary additives are moss sphagnum (cattleya), pieces of charcoal (dendrobium). Phalaenopsis feels great in a substrate without additives. Do not transplant flowers without expanded clay. It is used in floriculture as drainage. Being essentially porous clay, it is able to quickly absorb moisture and then slowly give it away.
When replanting flowers, some owners of epiphytes sometimes add polystyrene to the soil. Its use in a substrate for orchids causes heated debate among gardeners. Polyfoam has no natural components, being an absolutely synthetic substance. It is theoretically capable of playing the role of a soil disintegrant, but in humid conditions it can release toxic substances harmful to flowers.
For a substrate of terrestrial orchid species (Paphiopedilum, Cyripedium, etc.), an important component is a peat mixture. To prepare the soil in small quantities, leafy humus is used. Vermiculite, perlite are inorganic components that, in addition to the drainage function, play a protective role against harmful fungi and mold, preventing caking and compaction of the substrate. Like expanded clay, they are able to quickly absorb water and slowly release it, protecting the plant from excess moisture. Vermiculite contains potassium and magnesium in a flower-accessible form..
Tools and equipment for the procedure
Orchid plants are transplanted in spring or autumn, depending on the flowering period. For the transplant to be successful, you need to prepare everything you need:
- Spacious basin for moving plants for cleaning.
- New pot. For orchids use transparent plastic pots with holes in the bottom for ventilation. The height of the wall of the tank should be equal to its diameter. The volume of the new pot should be slightly larger than the old. In another way, the new capacity should be 3-4 cm larger than the volume of the root system of the flower.
- Sterile instrument: scissors, garden pruner with short handles, knife. For sterilization, the instrument can be boiled, soaked in alcohol or calcined until red on fire.
- Drainage – expanded clay, vermiculite or perlite.
- Bactericidal agents:
1. Coal powder (wood or crushed activated carbon), ground cinnamon.
2. Fungicides – biological or chemical substances that are used to fight against fungal diseases and other harmful microorganisms. During transplantation, they are used as a prophylactic, if there are no obvious signs of plant disease.
3. Insecticide – a chemical agent that destroys harmful insects.
Rules for transplanting orchids at home – step by step instructions
It is better to transplant indoor flowers on favorable days according to the lunar calendar. The necessary manipulations during this period will not be able to negatively affect the general condition of the culture. Recovery of its vital processes will be faster. A transplant consists of several stages:
- Removing the flower from the old pot and cleaning the rhizome from the substrate. Press down the pot on all sides with careful movements to disconnect the roots from the walls. Carefully remove the plant and transfer it to a basin with water at room temperature. If this is difficult to do, it is worth cutting the pot so as not to damage the fragile roots.
- Cleaning and disinfection. Leave the rhizome for an hour in the water, stirring it from time to time so that the substrate spills out into the pelvis. If the roots have dug into pieces of the bark, do not disconnect them, and even more so, tear them off. Rinse the root system with a shower head. Water should be slightly warm, and the stream should not be strong. Leave the plant for a while to dry.
After that, carefully inspect it. Healthy roots are resilient, have a gray-green hue. Remove dry and rotten parts of the root system with a sanitized pruning shears or sharp scissors. You need to cut them half a centimeter below the healthy part, then the plant will not hurt. Sprinkle slices with crushed coal powder (activated carbon) or ground cinnamon. Dry, yellowed leaves are subject to removal. Cut edges of antiseptics.
- Processing the root system from parasites. If there are obvious signs of damage to the root system by mold or other fungi that cause rotting, treat the roots with fungicide according to the instructions. Use an insecticide if harmful insects are found during the examination of the rhizome.
- The drying phase. The treated plant must be left to dry for 8 hours or more. It is best to prune and process the orchid in the evening and leave it to dry until morning. It is noted by florists that this process helps to protect the plant from excessive waterlogging, the flower will recover faster.
- Planting a plant in a new pot with prepared substrate. Before planting, it is necessary to disinfect the new flower container with dishwashing detergent and rinse well with running water. Pieces of bark – the basis of the substrate must be steamed, pouring them with boiling water. It is possible to apply bark for soil preparation, having previously cooled. Mix all components: bark, moss, peat (if necessary). Pour a little drainage at the bottom of the pot, lower the plant into the middle, fill the container with a substrate, evenly distributing throughout the volume. Rosette flower should be on the surface of the ground.
- The first watering. If the orchid has dried all night, then you can water it immediately after transplanting. If it is not possible to properly dry the flower, watering is carried out no earlier than a day later. If the owner of the orchid is not satisfied with the aesthetic appearance of the plastic pot, you can put a nondescript container in a beautiful glass, ceramic or other flower pot. It is important that it has a lattice structure or openings for free access of air. In this case, the pot should have additional holes on the walls..
Orchid after transplantation – care features
For a transplanted flower, it is necessary to create a special microclimate that will help the plant adapt faster and more easily bear the stress caused by mechanical stress on it. If the care is not correct, the leaves begin to turn yellow and fade. After transplanting, the flower must be kept away from direct sunlight..
It is better to put a worried green pet on the windowsill of the western or eastern windows. In moderate light conditions, it should be within the first 10 days after transplantation. At high air temperatures, it is recommended to periodically irrigate the plant with spray water to maintain the necessary humidity. In conditions of central heating, a flower pot is best placed on a pallet with wet expanded clay.
Watering a plant
It is necessary to transplant the plant in such a way that it is under constant supervision of the owner for the first 10 days after painful manipulations. In order to avoid infection of a weakened plant, it is necessary to carry out the first watering in a special way. For this, it is necessary to boil a sufficient amount of water, cool it, pour into a deep container. Immerse in it a pot with a transplanted orchid for 30-40 minutes so that 2/3 of it is in the water.
Organic fertilizer dressing
In no case should you fertilize the flowers earlier than 20 days after transplanting. During this time, all unforeseen problems are manifested. If a plant is transplanted according to the rules described above and on favorable days of the lunar calendar, twenty days is a sufficient period for the restoration of the strength of the plant organism. To properly fertilize a flower, you should do this:
- Before saturating a flower with fertilizer, it must be well watered to protect the pet from the aggressive effects of a chemical solution and help to better absorb nutrients.
- After half an hour, fill a wide container with a mineral solution prepared according to the instructions and immerse the flower pot 1/3 there. Leave it in this position for 30 minutes. Then put on a cloth for drying. After 45 minutes, the plant can be returned to its original place..