The content of the article
- What is yew
- Yew berry – photo and description
- Yew berry – where it grows
- Yew varieties
- Taxus baccata
- Yew berry david
- Yew berry fastigiata
- Yew elegantissima
- Yew berry summerhold
- Yew berry expansion
- Yew berry – care and planting
- Yew breeding
- Yew – propagation by cuttings
- Yew berry from seeds
- Yew application
- Yew wood
- Yew in landscape design – photo
- Yew in folk medicine
The tree of death and life used to be called this poisonous shrub, which is a perennial plant and is listed in the Red Book. How long does yew live? What are its beneficial properties and how to grow, apply? Learn all about an interesting, unusual plant.
What is yew
The evergreen coniferous yew tree has red fruits that are deadly to humans and animals. Poisoning a person can have the following symptoms: abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, loss of consciousness. When poisonous seeds get inside, taxin negatively affects cardiac activity, stops breathing, causes sharp irritation of the mucous membranes of the digestive tract.
What nutrients does an evergreen tree contain? The seed and fleshy roofs of the plant are composed of alkaloids and carbohydrates, and the composition of leaves, bark and wood is endowed with such compounds as:
- terpenoids (taxin);
- steroids (sitosterol, campesterol);
- cyanogenic compounds (toxophylline);
- phenols and their derivatives;
- higher fatty acids;
- higher aliphatic alcohols.
Yew berry – photo and description
The beautiful plant shown in the photo is yew. A coniferous tree with red berries is a long-liver among trees. Its roots are covered with mycorrhiza and penetrate deep into the soil. The size of the trunk with a brownish-red bark can grow up to 2.5 meters. The dense form of the crown is emphasized by a deep green color with a dark shade. The yew tree has single seed cones and is pollinated in the last months of spring. An interesting fact is that all parts of the plant (including yew berries and anther cones) are poisonous, except for the seedling.
Yew berry – where it grows
These photos show the yew plant, whose places of growth are Southern, Western and Central Europe. Bushes can be found in the forests of Africa and Iran, on the territory of the Crimean mountains, the Carpathians, in the Caucasus Nature Reserve, Belarus, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, and the Baltic states. In Russia, you can meet a plant in the Kaliningrad region. One of the oldest European trees is the Fortingel yew, which lives in Scotland. According to legends, under the crown of a beautiful tree Pontius Pilate himself rested when he was a child.
This family has 800 species, and the most common varieties are: Canadian, spiky, berry, medium. There are interspecific hybrid plants. Below is a list of the most popular species that are used to form magnificent green hedges and live fences on personal plots. Interesting varieties of yew berry that will help create a paradise on your site:
- Fastigiata Aurea;
- undersized Semperaurea;
- Repandens creeps on the ground;
- Hicksti (bush of a round shape);
- Taxus baccata;
- Needle Colchis;
A tree from the yew family grows slowly and has a thin reddish-brown bark. Yew berry taxus baccata begins to bloom in early spring (March, April). The plant feels great in the shade and prefers soil rich in nutrients. However, the tree is not too demanding. From too acidic soil, the plant may die. Yew perfectly tolerates severe frost, high humidity, noisy climate of the city and windy weather.
Yew berry david
For small decorative gardens you need to choose a special variety. Yew david is the owner of yellow needles. Fans of creating figures from plants should know that David is easily amenable to forming patterns and cutting. The place to create the composition should be chosen in the sun, because the color of the needles changes from the shadow – it becomes light green. In winter, the plant does not need special care, David is unpretentious and frost-resistant.
Yew berry fastigiata
Graceful shape in the form of a narrow column has yew fastigiata. The shade of its needles depends on the season: saturated dark green needles change the color of the branches to lighter. Gardeners should take into account the size of the plant: height is 5 meters, width – 2 meters, so you need to think about a place for planting in advance. The variety abundantly bears fruit in fleshy red fruits. Park tree seeds ripen in autumn.
Wonderful yew berry elegantissima upon reaching ten years has a height of 1 meter with a diameter of one and a half meters! Outwardly resembles a coniferous ball, has a light yellow color of needles, which turns white in the autumn. Of particular danger are all parts of the elegantism, except for red seedlings. Among animals, deer and horses can suffer the most if they use the needles inside. Elegantissima has some differences from other varieties – its pericarp looks like glasses with a bright red color.
Yew berry summerhold
Bright golden needles with yellowish needles distinguishes golden yew from other brethren. Due to its color, the variety was named Summergold, which in Russian means “golden summer”. The yew crown has a fun pillow shape. When the plant reaches 10 years of age, the height reaches 80 cm. The inability to tolerate the aridity of the soil is considered a disadvantage of the variety. Appearance and resistance to frost provided Summergold one of the main places in the green areas of beautiful parks, in flower alleys.
Yew berry expansion
Decorative yew berry Repandens is widely known among gardeners and landscape designers. It is low, and in adulthood it barely reaches 50 cm. The arched shape of the needles looks original. The plant does not tolerate complete shading and stops developing. In order for it to please you day by day, it needs moisture, sun or partial shade. Due to the festive, elegant appearance, berry expansion is used to decorate alpine slides, pebble gardens, river banks and ponds.
Yew berry – care and planting
For better bush growth, carefully fertilized soil is suitable. The composition for planting may include: part of peat, sand, turf or leafy soil. The acidity of the soil should be weak or with a neutral pH. Planting yew in the fall is not carried out, the planted plant in early spring. The distance between future yews should be at least 2 m. The place of transition of the stem to the root should be set at the same level with the upper soil layer, and a digging hole should be dug with a size of at least 70 cm.
If the reason for planting and leaving yew is the formation of a hedge, then it is worth digging a 0.5 meter trench in advance to plant the yew in one row. If two rows are needed, the depth of the trench will increase to 75 cm. A complex of mineral fertilizers is introduced into the soil during planting, as well as in spring. The rules of care are as follows: water the bush 1 time, monthly, for 2 years. Watering should be carried out regularly, but not less than 10 liters per plant. Loosening around the bush is necessary only the first 3 years.
The process of breeding yew is divided into two types and depends on whether you have free time. Cuttings and seedlings are suitable for propagation. Summer residents are advised to choose cuttings, because seed germination can take a long time. If the branches of the plant are directed upwards, then trees with vertical growth will be obtained from the cuttings. When rooting cuttings from horizontally located branches, sprawling, wide, low bushes are formed.
Yew – propagation by cuttings
In ornamental shrubs of yew, propagation by cuttings occurs, vegetatively. Not earlier than September, but no later than October, summer residents start harvesting cuttings. At the onset of this period, ripened shoots can take root. Suitable cuttings are 16-17 cm long. For reproduction, you need to take five-year-old shoots, because annual branches will be difficult to root. It is necessary to remove the needles below and place in the ground with sand and peat (2: 1). Drawers move to a greenhouse or an ordinary room. Months for cuttings are considered April-May.
Yew berry from seeds
The plant can be propagated using seeds that need to be harvested in autumn and sown immediately. You can wait for spring to make spring planting. The method of propagation by seeds involves storing them until spring in places with low humidity at a temperature of +5 degrees. Yew seeds require stratification (simulating winter conditions) every six months. Seed propagation of yew is not popular. After 30 years, the tree will grow only a meter. This is a lengthy process that requires patience and time..
The plant is not intended for oral use because of the natural toxic properties, but people still found application – the use of yew berry in classical homeopathy. The drugs are prepared on the basis of tincture of needles, which helps with headaches, chronic laryngitis, coughing after eating, digestive problems, and painful urination. A decoction of needles can be used externally for dermatitis, erysipelas, pustular rashes, rheumatism, skin mycosis, gout, for the treatment of scabies.
In ancient times, English bows were made from the plant, which were used in battles. The viscosity of wood made yew the best material in the construction of ships, plumbing, carpentry, because the tree bark does not rot and is famous for its strength. The useful properties of yew wood caused an incredible demand for the plant on the market and, as a result, complete extermination. Today, berry yew is common as a landscaping element, serves as a decorative plant, and is used in figured compositions..
Yew in landscape design – photo
Gardeners often use the evergreen yew in landscaping. Flowering begins at the end of April. The plant can be in the shade, not experiencing a lack of light, lends itself to shearing, suitable for use as living fences, elegantly trimmed hedges. With the help of this shrub, your garden will be transformed into a wonderful room of figural compositions from living plants: evenly trimmed cubes, circular balls and even whole sculptures.
Yew in folk medicine
At home, you can prepare a tool that will help with tumors after chemotherapy, radiation. To prepare the recipe, you need to find 150 g of dry branches of yew with bark and put them in a saucepan or bottle with a volume of 1.5 liters. Pour vodka, tightly close the lid. Insist 2 months in a dark place with room temperature. Do not expose tincture to sunlight.
The yew plant in folk medicine should be used according to a very strict scheme because of its toxicity. Drops must be diluted in 30 ml of water, drink before meals. If nausea occurs, water should be replaced with infusion of lemon balm or peppermint. Before use, tincture should be shaken, and the pipette should be changed once a week. Before taking, do not forget to consult with an oncologist-phytotherapist. The scheme for receiving tisse tinctures:
- In the first week, drink 3 drops, morning and evening.
- In the second week, increase the dose to 5 drops, take 3 times a day.
- In the third week, drink 7 drops 3 times a day.
- Gradually reach 25 drops 3 times a day.
- Drink the medicine for 2 months.
- Start alternating: one month for 10 drops, the next for 25 drops.