The content of the article
- Origin of surnames
- The meaning of Chinese surnames
- Chinese last names in Russian
- Chinese last names for men
- How many surnames in China
- Most common
- Funny Chinese first and last names
Compared to Europeans, the Chinese began to use surnames before our era. Initially, they were peculiar only to the royal family, the aristocracy, but gradually ordinary people began to use them. Some of them transformed over time, while others remained unchanged..
Origin of surnames
If some peoples still do not even have such a concept, then Chinese culture, on the contrary, takes this issue very seriously. The ancient Chinese surnames at the initial stage had two meanings:
- “Xing” (xing). The concept that was used to determine blood relatives, family. Later, a value was added to it, indicating the place of origin of the genus. Representatives of the imperial family used this concept just.
- “Shi” (shi). It appeared later and was used to show family ties within the entire clan. This was the name of the clan. After a while, it began to indicate the similarity of people by occupation.
Over time, these differences have erased. Today, there are no differences between people, but the inhabitants of the Celestial Empire are still careful about their family, respect and carefully study it. An interesting fact is that Koreans use Chinese characters to write their personal names. They took them from the inhabitants of the Celestial Empire and Koreez, for example, Chen.
The meaning of Chinese surnames
Chinese surnames and their meanings are of different origins. They have a large number of them, but only about two dozen are widespread. Some evolved from professional activities (Tao – the potter). Part is based on the name of the state-states into which China was fragmented in feudal times (Chen), and part is named after the ancestor who gave the name to the clan (Yuan). But all the strangers were called Hu. Of greater importance in the country are names, of which a huge number.
There are many dialects in the country, so the same name can sound completely different. Transliterating it into other languages can completely change the meaning, since most of them do not convey intonation, which plays a large role in the Chinese language. Many languages have developed special transcription systems in order to somehow unify the spelling and translation of Chinese surnames.
Chinese last names in Russian
Surnames in Chinese are always written in the first place (one syllable), and only then is the name written (one or two syllables), since the family is in the first place for them. In Russian, according to the rules, they are written in the same way. A compound name is written together, and not through a hyphen, as was until recently. In the modern Russian language, the so-called Palladium system is used, which has been used since the nineteenth century, with the exception of some amendments, to record Chinese surnames in Russian.
Chinese last names for men
The nicknames of the Chinese do not have gender differences, which can not be said about the name. In addition to the main name, twenty-year-old boys were given a middle name (“tzu”). Chinese names and surnames for men bear the traits that a man should possess:
- Bokin – respect for the winner;
- Gouogi – state order;
- Deming is a virtue;
- Zhong – loyal, steady;
- Zian is peaceful;
- Iingji is heroic;
- Kiang – strong;
- Liang is bright;
- Ming – sensitive and wise;
- Rong – military;
- Fa is outstanding;
- Juan – happiness;
- Cheng – achieved;
- Eiguo is a land of love, a patriot;
- Yun – the brave;
- Yaozu – worshiping ancestors.
Women in the Middle Kingdom after marriage leave their own. The Chinese have no specific rules that govern when they call a child. Here the main role is played by the imagination of the parents. Chinese women’s names and surnames characterize a woman as a gentle creature full of affection and love:
- Ai – love;
- Venkian – purified;
- Ji is pure;
- Jiao – graceful, beautiful;
- Jia is beautiful;
- Zhilan – a rainbow orchid;
- Ki is a beautiful jade;
- Kiaohui – experienced and wise;
- Kiuyu – the autumn moon;
- Xiaoli – morning jasmine;
- Xingjuang is grace;
- Lijuang – beautiful, graceful;
- Lihua is beautiful and prosperous;
- Meihui – beautiful wisdom;
- Ningong – calm;
- Rouolan – like an orchid;
- Ting is graceful;
- Fenfang – fragrant;
- Huizhong – wise and loyal;
- Chengwang – morning, light;
- Shuang – frank, sincere;
- Yui – the moon;
- Juming – jade brightness;
- Yun – the cloud;
- I am grace.
In Russian, some Chinese surnames are inclined. This applies to those ending in a consonant. If they have the ending “o” or soft consonant, then it remains unchanged. This applies to male names. Female names remain unchanged. All these rules are observed if personal names are used separately. When writing them together, only the last part will be subject to declination. Assimilated Chinese personal names will obey full declension in the Russian language.
How many surnames in China
It is difficult to determine exactly how many names in China, but it is known that only about a hundred of them are in wide use. Celestial is a country with a multibillion population, but paradoxically, most of its inhabitants have the same surname. By tradition, the child inherits it from the father, although recently only a son could wear it, the daughter took the mother. At present, the names of the genus do not change, although at the initial stage the hereditary names could change. This makes life difficult for the official authorities, since it is very difficult to keep records in such circumstances..
An interesting fact, but almost all personal names in Chinese are written in one hieroglyph, only a small part consists of two syllables, for example, Ouyang. Although there may be exceptions: the spelling will consist of three or even four hieroglyphs. Chinese with the same surname are not considered relatives, but only namesakes, although until recently people were forbidden to marry if they had the same name. Often the child could be given double – father and mother.
This may seem amusing to some, but just over twenty percent of the inhabitants of the Middle Kingdom have three surnames. The most common Chinese surnames are Li, Wang, Zhang, Nguyen. In the modern language, there are even stable expressions such as “three Zhangs, four Lee”, which mean “any”. They may have different spelling depending on transliteration..
Funny Chinese first and last names
In accordance with the pronunciation, many foreign words for someone else’s speech look, if not funny, then bizarre. Therefore, even the most harmless word in a foreign language can cause laughter in a Russian person. But sometimes the imagination of parents and the fact that in the language of the names can mean funny, and sometimes just wild things. Funny names and surnames of the Chinese:
- Sun Wyn;
- Sui Wyn;
- Chew it yourself;
- Stand up sun.