The content of the article
- What is medical examination
- Schedule by year of birth
- Changes in the program of general medical examination in 2018
- What examinations are included in the clinical examination 2018
- GP visit and general tests
- Referral to a neurologist
- Gynecologist and mammologist for women
- ECG for men over 36
- Features of a comprehensive diagnosis depending on age
- What tests are done during the medical examination in 2018
- How a health group is determined by screening
- Health passport with examination results
People who consider themselves healthy are not always like that. Diseases that can be managed at an early stage are determined in a neglected form, it is difficult to cure them, and sometimes it is impossible. Clinical examination – a preventive medical examination of the population – helps timely diagnosis of serious pathologies. What features does this service have in 2019, what is included in it? To maintain health, it is useful to know the types of examinations, analyzes, the procedure for passing.
What is medical examination
The Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, having studied morbidity statistics for the country, in 2013 decided on a routine physical examination of the entire population. Clinical examination is a free service provided by clinics, an easy way to find out your state of health. Medical checkup:
- carried out voluntarily;
- covers all groups of adults, from the age of 21 years, children from the moment of birth;
- carried out at the place of registration;
- requires a compulsory medical insurance policy – compulsory medical insurance, passport.
In order to undergo a clinical examination in 2018, it is necessary to find out which patients of which year of birth should take part in it. There is a special schedule for routine inspections. For each age group, it is agreed which procedures are included in the examination. The task of the dispensary physical examination of adults is the timely detection of diseases in patients that affect mortality, the beginning of their treatment. These include:
- diseases of the heart, blood vessels, lungs;
- oncological pathologies;
- chronic non-infectious ailments;
- endocrine system diseases;
In 2018, a dispensary examination of a child is no less important, which is carried out according to its schedule, starting with those born in 2001. A list of specialists to be visited is discussed. Children undergo a physical examination in a clinic, kindergarten:
- up to a year – monthly;
- from 1 to 2 years – quarterly;
- two to three – semiannually;
- 6-7, 10, 14-15, 16-17 years – annually.
Schedule by year of birth
Free medical examination of the population helps the patient to save significant amounts on medical research. The state allocates huge funds so that Russian citizens can undergo an early diagnosis of dangerous diseases. To ensure that the load on medical facilities is uniform, a special schedule of medical examinations is proposed. To determine the term for visiting the clinic, you can:
- specify the schedule on the website of any medical institution providing such a service;
- divide your age by 3, if the result is without a remainder, you should do a survey.
In 2018, adult patients and children born during the period, including start and end dates, must undergo a medical examination:
Year of birth
from 1919 to 1937
1922, 1925, 1928, 1931.1934
from 1940 to 1958
1943, 1946, 1949, 1952, 1955
from 1961 to 1979
1964, 1967, 1970, 1973, 1976
from 1982 to 2000
1985, 1988, 1994, 1997
from 2001 to 2017
from 2001 to 2004, inclusive
Timely diagnosis helps to facilitate the treatment process, extend the patient’s life. The task of conducting a medical examination in 2018 across the country is to identify the state of public health. As a result of surveys, the health system:
- has information on the spread of diseases;
- identifies risk factors leading to chronic pathologies;
- carries out the adjustment of methods that are included in the plans for a regular population survey.
The objectives of dispensary medical examinations in adults:
- early diagnosis of chronic diseases – causes of life threatening, disability, premature death;
- in-depth examination by specialists of a narrow profile;
- definition of preventive measures;
- the appointment of treatment, rehabilitation procedures;
- consultation of patients at risk;
- registration at the dispensary;
- increase in life expectancy, improving its quality.
Clinical examination focuses on diseases that often lead to serious consequences. Regular examinations help maintain and maintain the health of citizens. The list of pathologies that are studied during a physical examination includes:
- diseases of the nervous, cardiovascular system;
- pulmonary failure;
- malignant neoplasms;
- chronic ailments of non-infectious etiology;
- endocrine system diseases.
The tasks of the dispensary physical examination 2018 in children have differences. The objectives include:
- strengthening, maintaining health;
- improvement of mental, physical development;
- organization of social adaptation;
- hormonal development;
- identification of pathologies at an early stage;
- timely treatment;
- preventive measures to exclude complications, the progression of the disease, the onset of disability.
Changes in the program of general medical examination in 2018
The Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, on the basis of statistical data, regularly adjusts the measures included in the list of necessary examinations during preventive medical examinations. Due to the lack of required equipment in medical facilities, low information content, in 2018 the following were excluded:
- general blood analysis;
- ultrasound procedure;
- Analysis of urine.
As a result of the great mortality from cardiovascular pathologies, cancer, during the clinical examination in 2018, the range of examinations was expanded, which includes with a frequency of once every two years:
Type of study
The task of dispensary medical examinations
Patient’s age, years
Fecal occult blood test
Detection of malignant neoplasms of the rectum
Mammography of the mammary glands
Screening for women at risk for breast cancer
Determination of pathologies of blood vessels, heart
men – from 35
women – from 45
A preventive physical examination begins with a visit to a general practitioner who collects an anamnesis and conducts a patient survey. A person receives a route sheet, where all the examinations that must be completed are marked. The patient is given a form of a health passport, which is filled out by specialists of a narrow profile. The list of doctors who must be visited taking into account the age of the subject and health status includes:
The therapist receives the opinions of narrow specialists, the results of analyzes, examinations. According to the results of the first stage of a preventive medical examination:
- assesses the condition of the patient;
- gives preventive recommendations;
- establishes a health group;
- makes suggestions for treatment;
- issues a passport when examinations are successfully completed.
A preventive medical examination proceeds to the second stage if the patient has revealed:
- increased intraocular pressure;
- deviations of blood counts;
- ECG changes;
- pathology of the nervous system;
- the likelihood of developing neoplasms;
- deviations in the functions of the genitourinary system of men and women;
- risk of heart attack, vascular pathologies.
Additional medical examination includes an in-depth examination of patients with narrow specialists with the help of special hardware techniques, laboratory tests. At the second stage, doctors are prescribed consultations:
- ENT specialist;
What examinations are included in the clinical examination 2018
A medical examination begins with a visit to the therapist, who, together with the patient, fills out a questionnaire. He determines which doctors undergo medical examination in accordance with age, makes notes in the route map about the necessary examinations. A doctor through a survey identifies risk factors for the development of chronic diseases:
- the presence of a hereditary predisposition;
- physical activity;
- use of alcohol, drugs;
- the presence of pathological symptoms.
The medical examination 2018 includes mandatory examinations and procedures for all, taking into account the age of the patient:
- blood test for sugar, cholesterol;
- fluorographic examination of the lungs;
- smear of the cervical mucosa for women;
- mammography of the mammary glands;
- analysis of feces for occult blood;
- gynecologist examination;
- reception of a neurologist;
- determination of intraocular pressure.
GP visit and general tests
To undergo medical examination in the clinic, the patient first goes to a general practitioner. The therapist offers him to fill out a special questionnaire, where the factors provoking the development of chronic ailments, a predisposition to them are fixed. At the initial inspection:
- blood pressure is measured;
- determined body weight, height;
- directions are given for mandatory analyzes, examinations.
According to the results of the first stage of the clinical examination, the therapist:
- summarizes the results of a medical examination;
- establishes the patient’s health group;
- gives recommendations on preventive measures;
- if necessary, sends for in-depth examination by narrow specialists – oncologist, urologist, surgeon;
- prescribes therapeutic measures;
- fills in the statistical form and the patient’s health certificate.
Referral to a neurologist
A visit to this specialist during medical examination is necessary after 51 years. The therapist can send the patient to be examined by a neurologist if indicated. A mandatory consultation includes checking:
- memory, thinking by solving problems, remembering pictures;
- spatial sensations – performing actions with eyes closed;
- tingling sensitivities;
- facial expressions;
- eye movements;
- turning the head;
- coordination of movements with closed, open eyes.
To clarify the diagnosis, a neurologist can prescribe additional hardware and laboratory tests:
- encephalography – determination of brain activity;
- electroneuromyography – the study of peripheral nerves;
- x-ray – examination of the skull, brain;
- computed tomography – detailed familiarization with small defects;
- dopplerography – determination of blood flow velocity in the cerebral vessels;
- magnetic resonance imaging – study of the work of the cerebral cortex;
- blood test for proteins, hormones – detection of infectious lesions of the nervous system.
Gynecologist and mammologist for women
Reproductive health issues are a priority, because women should visit a gynecologist every year. During the medical examination, a survey and examination of patients is carried out, a smear is taken, palpation of the mammary glands is performed to identify pathologies. A doctor to detect diseases of the female genital organs finds out:
- the beginning of the menstrual cycle;
- its duration, nature of the course;
- the beginning of sexual activity;
- use of oral contraceptives;
- regularity of sexual intercourse;
- the presence of pregnancy, childbirth, abortion.
Breast cancer is widespread in women, but with early diagnosis it is successfully treated, therefore, a follow-up examination includes a mammological examination – an x-ray of the mammary glands. If changes are detected, the woman is sent for consultation to a mammologist, who diagnoses breast diseases, and sends them for treatment or surgery. The doctor reveals:
- benign, malignant neoplasms;
- hereditary pathologies;
- hormonal disorders that provoke ailments;
- inflammatory processes in the chest – mastitis.
ECG for men over 36
The rhythms of modern life, constant stress, poor ecology and bad habits have led to an increase in the number of young men who have problems with the work of the heart and blood vessels. The Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation decided to conduct an ECG as part of a clinical examination in 2018. The results of the examination are decoded by the doctor. The check includes a determination in men after 36 years:
- rhythm regularity;
- heart sizes;
- blood supply;
- heart rate;
- the presence and nature of the teeth, their polarity, size, height.
An ECG during the medical examination helps to assess the state of the cardiovascular system and decide on an in-depth examination, the appointment of treatment. The technique helps to identify in young men:
- myocardial infarction;
- coronary heart disease;
- heart aneurysm;
- ventricular hypertrophy;
- angina pectoris;
- myocardial dystrophy;
- pulmonary embolism.
Features of a comprehensive diagnosis depending on age
In addition to mandatory studies, during the clinical examination 2018, special events are prescribed that are necessary for patients at risk. Information is collected on the basis of statistical information on the state of health of the country’s population. Given age, it is additionally included in the medical examination of an adult:
Type of examination
Measurement of intraocular pressure
Histological examination of the smear
When undergoing medical examination, doctors prescribe additional diagnostic procedures based on the age of the patient:
Type of study
Fecal occult blood
Ultrasound of the abdomen
Gastritis, stones, neoplasms
Determining the level of prostate-specific antigen
Neoplasms in the mammary gland
men after 36
women – from 45
What tests are done during the medical examination in 2018
To detect diseases during the medical examination, mandatory laboratory tests are performed. The list includes a blood test, which helps to identify the development of inflammatory processes, chronic diseases. With his help determine the content:
- total cholesterol;
- alanine aminotransaminases;
- creatinine level;
- total bilirubin;
- aspartate aminotransaminases.
Conducting laboratory tests helps with high accuracy to identify dangerous diseases at the beginning of development, to take measures to restore the patient’s health. During the clinical examination 2018, the list of mandatory tests includes:
- feces for occult blood – eliminates the appearance of malignant neoplasms of the rectum;
- cytological examination of a smear from the cervix in all women under 70 years of age – early diagnosis of cancerous tumors.
How a health group is determined by screening
After conducting examinations during the clinical examination in 2018, doctors assign a health group to patients. This is a designation necessary for the subsequent analysis of a person’s condition, the appointment of medical and preventive procedures. In adults, three groups are distinguished. The first is characterized by:
- lack of chronic diseases;
- maintaining a healthy lifestyle;
- rare ailments, colds;
- slight deviations in blood pressure.
The second group of health, as a rule, includes middle-aged patients, pensioners, which are characterized by:
- chronic diseases without complications;
- bad habits – smoking, drinking alcohol;
- improperly organized food;
- limited physical activity;
- tendency to develop diabetes mellitus, pathologies of the heart, blood vessels.
According to the results of the clinical examination 2018, the third group of health includes patients:
- requiring constant monitoring by specialists;
- having pathologies that worsen the quality of life;
- suffering from serious illnesses;
- having a disability group with partial or complete disability;
- faced with a regular exacerbation of chronic diseases.
When examining children in 2018, 5 health groups are distinguished, depending on the general condition of the patient, the presence of chronic ailments:
- first – absence of problems with physical and mental health, normal functioning of all organs;
- second – chronic diseases are not observed, there is a decrease in immunity, functional impairment, overweight, developmental delay, lack of mass, impaired vision.
The following health groups include children with more serious problems:
- the third – chronic pathologies in remission, growth retardation, body weight deviations, lag in psychological development;
- the fourth – exacerbation of chronic ailments, the consequences of surgery injuries, the presence of learning restrictions;
- fifth – serious illness with frequent seizures, complications, physical developmental defects, organ dysfunctions, disability.
Health passport with examination results
When the patient undergoes a medical examination 2018, he has, in addition to an outpatient card, a route sheet, on his hands, there is one more document. Health passport – the conclusion of all specialists on the results of examinations. It, simultaneously with the medical record, is filled in by every doctor whose patient has undergone examination. The document includes:
- personal data;
- MHI insurance policy number;
- belonging to a health group;
- recommendations of narrow specialists.
After passing the medical examination, the health passport is transferred to the patient until the next physical examination. The therapist enters in the document:
- blood pressure indicators;
- heart rate
- test results;
- anthropometric data – height, weight;
- recommendations on lifestyle, disease prevention;
- prescribing additional treatment.