The content of the article
- Why do I need embroidery on clothes
- On t-shirts
- On jeans
- On shirts
- On dresses
- Types of Stitches
- Materials for embroidery on clothes
- the cloth
- Patch canvas
- How to embroider on clothes manually
- Cross stitch
- Machine embroidery on clothes
For many centuries, embroidery on clothes has not lost its relevance. In ancient times, embroidery was used to judge the estate of a person, gold decorated the clothes of wealthy officials and clergy, modest ribbons and beads – ordinary people. If earlier the pattern of threads was also a talisman, today today the foreground of embroidery is the aesthetic perception of clothing and decoration. There are several embroidery techniques, each distinguishing its own materials and process.
Why do I need embroidery on clothes
Modern clothing with embroidery belongs to the decorative arts of needlework. The principle of embroidery – work with a needle or crochet, a machine to create a pattern, three-dimensional image. Decorate leather, felt, cotton. They use linen, cotton, silk, woolen threads and beads, pearls, stones, sparkles, sequins, gold, sometimes even coins. With the help of female enthusiasm, you can create whole ornaments, logos and inscriptions – indispensable for workwear, custom-made sportswear, national costumes.
Depending on the type of embroidery technology,
the pattern, its density, openwork (richelieu) are different. Ornaments and patterns can have a flat or convex appearance, be slightly contoured, lace or tightly covering the entire surface of the product. Functions of modern embroidery:
- improving or emphasizing the aesthetic properties of the material;
- emphasizing the texture and color of the fabric;
- can decorate things.
Embroidery on T-shirts or T-shirts is popular. With its help, they become brighter, more expressive. More often t-shirts with embroidery are decorated with a logo and are used for sportswear and workwear. The inscriptions on clothes made by embroidery emphasize the color and texture of the fabric, highlight its owner due to improved aesthetic properties. For embroidery use pockets, upper back, front surface at chest level.
Jeans embroidery is often used to decorate women’s clothing; men do not perceive this design. Pants can be “colored” with bright patterns, embroidered individual flowers, stars or completely filled, for example, one leg. The figure adorns the jeans, emphasizes the harmony of the legs. Popular places of application are pockets (back and front), the front of the trousers, the lower edge, the seat of the belt.
To decorate shirts with embroidery, logos and inscriptions are often used. They are placed on the collar, cuffs, pockets, belt. It is advisable to apply a repeating pattern (ornament) or inscription. For the latter, the machine decoration method is best suited. With the printed pattern, the polo shirt looks more attractive, more solid, can be used to create a single style (football teams, companies with a dress code).
Looks richly decorated with embroidery LCA. These are national costumes for dance teams or clothing used in everyday life. Bright contrasting threads are used for decoration, the pattern is applied to the collar, sleeves, belt, hem of the hem. The choice of drawing depends on the mood and purpose of the thing. The ornament is suitable for everyday use, rich drawings by the type of flowers or forest motifs – for evening events.
Types of Stitches
To start embroidering, you need to familiarize yourself with the types of stitches used in the process. There are several of them, each different in execution technology and type of application:
- Tambour stitch – the most common, refers to the buttonhole, machine or manual. Sometimes called a chain stitch, for its implementation you will need a chain hook or needle. From the starting point, point the needle to the left, loop the thread under the tip from right to left. Pull the thread through the fabric, again direct the needle to the left to the second point, pass through the loop, lead to the third point, throw a loop under the tip of the needle. A kind of stitch – fasten: repeat the first step, stretch the thread and fasten the loop with a small stitch, make 5 stitches in a circle (you get a daisy pattern).
- Linguistic (overcasting) – are included in the group of buttonhole stitches, differ in tight placement to each other with the formation of a tight “ribbon”. Between each vertical stitch, fabric is visible. Process of execution: from the starting point through the second, draw the needle to the third point, which will lie to the right of the starting point. Pass the thread under the tip of the needle from left to right, pull the thread, rise to the fourth point (lies right next to the second), bring the needle to the fifth point, laying the thread under the tip of the needle. Sew in rows with tight, even stitches.
- Crossed – sometimes called moss, Persian, Russian, goat or witch. Refer to the group of crosses: from the starting point, pass the needle through the second point to the third, make a cross with a cross of threads at the bottom. Repeat on the other side.
- Herringbone – looped stitch to create a light ornament. Other names are feather or rose hips. From the starting point, lead the needle through the second to the third point, pull the thread under the tip of the needle to the right, pull the needle to the left, repeat the thread pulling twice.
- Basting – a simple linear stitch, performed at intervals equal to or almost equal to the length of the stitches. Through the second point, lead the needle to the third without pulling the thread through the fabric, output through the fourth point to the fifth, pull the thread without pulling the fabric. Try to make the stitches even, equal in length..
- The cross stitch is the second most popular stitch, otherwise called Berlin, patterned or printed. It can be performed at any scale and at any angle. From the starting point, diagonally drag the thread to the second point in the upper left corner, from the top right point, lead the thread to the lower left. Repeat in even stitches at regular intervals..
- Lowercase – similar to a machine line, used for a clear outline. It belongs to the group of straight stitches, looks like a “back needle” and Holbein seam. Work starts from the lower right point with pulling the threads. Sew a series of small lower case stitches to make a line..
- Stem – contour stitch from a group of lines. It features graceful, partially overlapping lines with an even raised tip. Guide the needle through the second point over the working thread, pull the thread, holding it under the needle, finish the stitch.
- Stitch – the main stitch for embroidery with flowers, otherwise called damask. Place the stitches close to each other, guide the threads from bottom to top from right to left. Keep the edges of the motif even, pull the threads for smoothness.
- A knot (bead, French dot, lace nodular, rococo) – performed separately or nearby to create a soft contour, embroidering the center of the flower. At the starting point, wrap the thread around the needle counterclockwise, holding the needle over the fabric, repeat the wrap. Gather the curls together, slide to the tip of the needle, insert one into the fabric close to the starting point.
Materials for embroidery on clothes
First you need to wash the clothes that the craftswoman will decorate. This is necessary to insure against shrinkage of the fabric, distortion of the pattern and check shedding. Embroidery on clothes requires a number of materials – from thread and canvas to needles and non-woven. If you embroider manually, you need to prepare a comfortable well-lit place. For the machine process, you need a free table, a lamp for lighting. Additional materials: ripper, scissors, copy or tracing paper to transfer the picture.
For embroidery use special embroidery threads. The color of the threads is selected depending on the type of pattern. Before decorating clothes, the material is checked for color fastness: it is wetted, wrapped in white cloth. If it is dyed, you can fix the color of the threads with a special composition – strongly soap with household soap and immerse in very hot water for 15 minutes. After this, the threads are thoroughly rinsed with cold water and immersed for 2-3 minutes in a solution of vinegar with salt (per glass of water in a tablespoon of 9% vinegar and salt).
When choosing yarns, their thickness is taken into account – the larger it is, the lower the number on the package. Types of thread:
- Polyester – resistant to color loss during washing, chemical attack.
- Viscose – suitable for decorating clothes made of thin fabric, reflect light, emphasize the elegance of the pattern.
- Cotton – more often used in machine embroidery, but may eventually lose elasticity, deform, shed, thin out and become tangled in knots. Ideal for leather and jeans.
Embroidery on clothes should not spoil things during the decoration process, so you need to use needles with a thin small eye (otherwise there will be traces of punctures). You can choose special or universal needles in size No. 70-90. If embroidery is done on elastic, knitted fabrics or leather, special needles will be needed.
Wooden embroidery frames are suitable for manual embroidery. These are two circles that tightly pull the fabric and prevent it from moving during the process. A plastic hoop with an adjusting screw with a diameter of 15-20 cm is suitable for the machine process. Large circles will not work – the fabric will stretch, bubble, wrinkle. When fastening clothes in the hoop, make sure that it lies freely without stretching, otherwise the pattern will be deformed.
When choosing clothes for embroidery, pay attention to the type of fabric from which it is made. The counting material has the same number of threads in the weft and warp, which gives the result of smooth stitches with equal intervals of gaps. The more threads of fabric, the denser the pattern will be. Smooth materials include velvet, satin, silk and wool. It’s harder to embroider.
For embroidery, choose a heavy fabric that will hold the threads, but at the same time light to create a spectacular embossed pattern. Before decorating, make a trial pattern on a small patch of clothing. To prevent the fabric from stretching, iron it from the wrong side before embroidering – this will prevent skewing and deformation of the pattern on the finished clothes.
For smooth and beautiful embroidery on clothing, especially the cross, a canvas is required. It is a mesh stiff material that facilitates the creation of clear, tight stitches. After ironing the clothes, attach the ironed canvas to the place of the drawing, choosing a slightly larger size than the pattern itself. Firmly fix the canvas with pins or a temporary seam, smooth out wrinkles with your hands.
When performing the drawing, try not to sew on the canvas itself, otherwise it will be difficult to remove it. To do this, alternately pull out the threads of the canvas of horizontal or vertical rows with your hands or forceps. If you can’t completely remove the canvas, pull out only the extreme ones, and cut the rest under the tip. So the crosses will maintain their density and evenness, the picture is not deformed.
To fix the picture, adhesive non-woven backing materials are used. Non-woven is popular. This is a paper-like material made from cellulose fibers with the addition of polyester. It is available in different densities and with a solid or spot adhesive coating. For embroidery, the material is cut “over the cut” so that it does not stretch.
It is optimal to choose a cushioned interlining with a lining so that it does not fluff when washing. After finishing the decoration, stick a piece of non-woven fabric slightly larger than the picture itself, from the back and iron it well. This will fix the threads, will not allow them to crawl after several washings, and will maintain the density and necessary rigidity of the clothes. For embroidery on the edges of things (hem, sleeves, pockets, cuffs) use non-woven ribbons.
How to embroider on clothes manually
The choice of technique depends on the color of the fabric, surface (smooth, printed or fleecy). First you need to transfer the pattern to the fabric. To do this, use a special pencil (evaporates after 24 hours from the moment of application) or a stencil, you can use tracing paper, and for thin fabrics – transfer the pattern to the lumen. The safest way to apply the picture is to attach the tracing paper with English pins and embroider right on it. Transferring the pattern, fasten the fabric in the hoop, prepare the threads and needles, start embroidering according to the pattern.
The easiest to execute according to tradition is cross-stitch on clothing. This style is suitable for the design of summer dresses, sundresses, children’s or adult jeans, caps. For decoration, choose pockets, sleeves, collars, from the patterns the ornament is optimal. Bring the canvas to the desired area, fix the hoop, embroider first crosses of the same color, then the rest of the shades. Use dense smooth threads, keep the stitches even. After embroidery, remove the canvas by pulling out the rows or simply dissolve it in cold water (there are such types).
Stitch embroidery on clothes looks no less elegant, but its execution is more difficult, because you need to monitor the clarity of the stitches. To get started, put on the hoop, overlay a pattern with tissue paper, sew the outline manually or apply the pattern with a chemical pencil and soap. Start with a small section of the pattern, sew tight, even stitches of the same size, placing them as close to each other as possible..
For embroidery, stitching is best suited shawl, hem dresses, shirt sleeves or jeans trousers. The Chinese and Japanese surface are two-sided or one-sided, straight or oblique. If embroidery floss thread is taken, it is better to take cotton, linen or burlap. Batiste, satin, silk are embroidered with silk threads, and dense fabrics are embroidered with iris threads. For embroidery, choose the thinnest needles, tightly stretch areas of clothing. First, the outline is executed, then the relief of the drawing is filled.
Beadwork on clothes and shoes looks unusually beautiful. It is difficult for beginners, but there are some secrets to obtaining the elegance of the picture. The main seams for embroidery with beads:
- Monastic – the front part consists of diagonal stitches with beads, vertical rows are obtained from the wrong side.
- Lowercase – one bead per stitch. The needle is removed from the wrong side between the first and second beads, the bead is strung, the needle is inserted before the first bead. Having withdrawn the needle from the wrong side between the second and third bead, string the second bead and insert the needle between the first and second bead. Repeat to get a straight, tight line. For harder sewing, pull the thread at the end of each row through the lowercase seam..
- Stem – fasten the thread, put on a bead, insert the needle into the fabric and remove it behind the strung bead. Again, go through the bead, string the second one, insert the needle into the fabric behind the new bead, and withdraw between the last two. Embroidery in this way is very dense.
- Arched – used for not rigid embroidery. String a few beads on each front stitch, but attach only the one at the intersection of the stitches to the fabric.
Some more useful rules for beadwork for beginners who want to decorate things:
- sew the beads evenly, with the same inclination;
- use beads of the same size;
- pull the hoop tightly;
- use fishing line, synthetic or chrome threads so that they do not sag under the weight of beads;
- the color of the thread should match the color of the canvas, embroider in rows;
- the length of the thread per row should be 4-5 times the width of the embroidery;
- so that the thread does not get tangled, wax it (press it to the wax and pull through it, remove the excess);
- Do not fasten the thread with coarse knots;
- A popular decoration technique is half-cross;
- choose needles No. 10 or 12, do not pull the threads from the wrong side, fasten the working thread with a double knot from the wrong side.
Machine embroidery on clothes
Machine embroidery is very widespread because, compared to manual embroidery, it is faster, better and lower in cost. Embroidery machines have special equipment and software control, which helps to make the same ornaments for a whole batch of clothes. A needle is installed on the machine, a thread is threaded into it, the fabric is prepared, fixed with a plastic hoop. For the machine embroidery process almost no canvas is required. After installing the program and selecting a pattern, a pattern is applied to the clothes.