The content of the article
- What is moral harm and its compensation
- Compensation Law
- Grounds for non-pecuniary damage
- For what they seek moral harm
- Method and amount of compensation for non-pecuniary damage
- Compensation Forms
- Size of non-pecuniary damage
- How to sue for moral damages
- Statement of claim
- Proof of non-pecuniary damage
- Consequences of non-pecuniary damage
- Judicial practice for non-pecuniary damage
- Recovery of moral hazard in road accidents
- Compensation for violation of consumer rights
- Compensation for non-pecuniary damage
- Compensation in labor law
Citizens understand such an expression as compensation for material damage when liability occurs after damage to property. Property damage can easily be estimated in monetary terms. However, it’s difficult for many to understand how compensation for moral harm occurs, for what physical suffering the court makes a decision on damages.
What is moral harm and its compensation
The concept of causing moral harm means the infliction of suffering, which may be physical or psychological in nature. The definition of physical suffering does not raise any questions – it is harming one’s health. Psychological suffering includes emotional distress. These include feelings experienced about harm:
The ability to demand recovery for a non-property loss is enshrined in the Civil Code, the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Resolution of the Plenum of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (1994). Legislative acts provide for the liability of citizens whose actions or inaction are regarded as an infringement on the moral rights of the victim. The law lists intangible goods:
- dignity and business reputation;
- the right to unhindered movement and to free choice of place of residence;
- right to privacy;
- the right to family, medical confidentiality.
Grounds for non-pecuniary damage
Compensation is possible if:
- if the fact of suffering as a result of violation of moral rights is established;
- established action or inaction that caused suffering;
- the connection between the action or criminal inaction and the harm caused;
- proved guilty person.
Even if the person’s guilt has not been established, according to the law, the victim may make a claim for damages if:
- when damage is caused by a source that poses an increased danger;
- unlawful conviction, detention, taking a subscription from the victim on his own recognizance, imposing an administrative penalty on him;
- the dissemination of false information that defames the honor, dignity or business reputation of the victim.
For what they seek moral harm
The award of a penalty is possible in violation of the moral rights of citizens. Compensation for non-pecuniary damage may be awarded for:
- experiencing mental pain in case of loss of a relative;
- physical pain from injuries and stress;
- acquired disability and, as a consequence, loss of normal life;
- deterioration of the psychological state;
- job loss;
- slander, insults;
- disclosure of family, private, medical secrets;
- violation of confidentiality of conversations or correspondence.
Method and amount of compensation for non-pecuniary damage
The minimum and maximum limits of the penalty are not established by law, no formulas are provided for calculating the amount of compensation, and how it is possible to measure the amount of psychological experiences, feelings of fear, shame or humiliation, therefore, when considering the criteria provided by law are taken into account:
- Offender’s degree of guilt.
- The degree and nature of suffering. They are considered individually for the particular affected party – how the actions of the offender influenced the state of physical and psychological health, for what period the disability occurred. Often confirmation is required for this..
- Circumstances. Consideration of a specific situation may affect the increase or decrease in the amount of foreclosure..
The guilty party may agree to purchase certain things and transfer it to the injured party before the court considers the case in order to compensate for the psychological or physical damage caused. The court can make a decision on compensation for moral damage only in the manner prescribed by law – in cash. In some cases, the court decides to terminate unlawful actions or make a rebuttal.
Size of non-pecuniary damage
It can be argued that the criteria for assessing the responsibility of the guilty party are conditional and the court gains freedom in making decisions and can subjectively assess the situation. The law provides for principles that must be used to determine the amount of monetary compensation – this is reasonableness and justice. The word justice involves the use of all existing legislation to protect the violated rights of the victim. When establishing the amount of the amount of payments to the victim, the court shall take into account:
- The desire of the victim to negotiate. The decision of the court to reduce the amount of compensation may be affected by the situation when the guilty party proposed to compensate for the damage before the consideration of the claim, and the victim refused to enrich.
- The material condition of the person who caused the suffering. It is unreasonable to make a decision to reimburse such an amount that the offender will not be able to pay, but if the guilt of several persons has been proved, then the share of participation in the recovery of all those responsible is established.
- Public assessment of the event in which the person suffered, this can help judges assess the situation.
How to sue for moral damages
In order to protect his moral rights, the victim needs to go to court. This can be done at the place of residence of the offender, registration of their location or property. The consideration of the claim takes place in the courts of general jurisdiction. In case of disagreement with the decision made by one of the parties, a cassation appeal is filed and the consideration of the claim is carried out by the court of second instance – cassation.
Statement of claim
To consider the case by the court, the victim needs to draw up a statement of claim. Applicant needs:
- correctly indicate the details of the court;
- enter the individual data of the plaintiff and defendant;
- substantiate what harm has been caused and designate their size for recovery;
- list evidence of guilt of the defendant.
Proof of non-pecuniary damage
The fact of non-observance of the intangible rights of the victim is established during the trial with the help of the certificate of other persons. The following documents are accepted as evidence:
- certificate of incapacity for work when causing harm to health;
- an article in the media in which false data is published;
- personal correspondence, family photographs, when a claim was made for compensation for non-pecuniary damage upon loss of a relative.
Consequences of non-pecuniary damage
The evidence of the defendant’s guilt regarding the victim may be the conclusion of a medical examination of the psychological state of the victim. The consequences of the harm may be the unbalanced state of the victim due to the feelings of humiliation, shame, inferiority, irritation, discomfort. The result of moral experiences can be:
- changing relationships at work and in the family;
- deterioration of business results;
- inability to engage in social activities;
- even suicide.
Judicial practice for non-pecuniary damage
In practice, to prove the infliction of moral damage is much more difficult than property. The plaintiff must independently or with the help of a lawyer convince the judges that the deterioration of the physical health and psychological state of the victim are the result of the actions of the offender. There is a known case of a court imposing the largest penalty (1,500,000 rubles) for disability and the subsequent death of a baby in St. Petersburg.
Recovery of moral hazard in road accidents
In the event of an accident, in addition to compensation for material damage, the applicant has the right to demand compensation for the damage caused to his health. When considering claims, courts often reduce the amount claimed to be collected several times, but such litigation is one of the claims when victims receive significant payments. Practice shows that the plaintiff is awarded moral damage compensation from 100,000 rubles to 800,000 rubles. Not only the injured can receive compensation in case of an accident, but also those whose relatives died during the accident.
Compensation for violation of consumer rights
The court’s determination of the amount of recovery from an unscrupulous producer of goods or for improper provision of services does not depend on the cost of products and services. The amount of compensation for such claims is insignificant, they are in the range of 5000-50000 rubles. Mostly, when considering cases, the courts reduce the amounts claimed by the injured party for payment. The plaintiff may be paid compensation for non-pecuniary damage in the event of a claim from him for payment of medical services, which are included in the list of.
Compensation for non-pecuniary damage
The restoration of non-property rights does not apply to the limitation period. You can file a lawsuit for recognition at any time:
- void acts of government that violate personal rights;
- author rights;
- or restoration of honor and dignity.
There is a limitation period for filing for loss compensation. Perhaps the application of laws on violation of moral rights and appeal to the court to recover money from the defendant when:
- violation of the terms of the contract by a travel company;
- violation of family, medical secrets and wills;
- the dissemination of false false information;
- violation of the author’s rights to authorship, name, publication;
- violation of freedom of movement.
Compensation in labor law
In most cases, the courts are guided by the Civil Code in the settlement of labor disputes over the recovery of compensation. Compensation for non-pecuniary damage to an employee may be paid for damage to health during an accident at work or due to work in harmful working conditions. The damage caused to the employee in case of:
- illegal dismissal or demotion;
- untimely payment of earnings;
- gender discrimination due to age;
- violation of moral rights and freedoms;
- vacation denial.