How best to repay a loan – types and characteristics of debt repayment in accordance with a loan agreement

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Practice shows: many citizens do not understand the issue of debt repayment, despite the fact that they have a loan and often not one. Mistakes in interacting with financial and credit institutions are made even by borrowers who have applied to borrowing services more than once. If you have already decided to borrow money from the bank, you should pre-calculate the cost of interest and specify the possibility of early payment without additional, unexpected expenses.

Is early repayment of a loan profitable

It is considered normal that the borrower seeks to save as much as possible on the overpayment of credit funds, and one way is to pay before the agreed time. Repaying debt ahead of schedule means fully paying off the debt earlier than the date specified in the loan agreement. The term “partial repayment” means the introduction of amounts larger than the regular payment schedule provides. How best to repay a loan so that it is profitable?

Early repayment of a consumer loan, from the perspective of a credited person, is positive, since it gives the borrower money savings. For a banking organization, settlement by a borrower of a debt ahead of schedule is not financially interesting. At first glance, this is not entirely clear: the debtor returns the money to the lender in full, but this threatens the commercial institution with a loss of planned interest payments. Therefore, any bank seeks to draw up an agreement with benefit for itself so that the borrower does not have an incentive to pay off the debt prematurely.

If a citizen ceases to pay the debt, finding himself in difficult financial circumstances, in this case, the creditor, as a rule, also does not remain at a loss. By collecting overdue debts by court order or through a collection company, the lender receives an additional income in the form of fines and penalties or from the sale of collateral. In case of early settlement, the bank has to change the payment schedule, recounting interest charges, reducing them not in its own favor.

Advantages and disadvantages

Financial and credit institutions resort to various tricks that impede the desire of customers to close the contract before the planned, specified date. Until November 1, 2011, banks practiced penalties for the outstripping rate of settlement of debts, which covered the creditor with lost profits. After the introduction of legislative amendments to the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, it became possible to repay a loan debt ahead of schedule without penalty at any time.

For those wishing to take advantage of the main advantage of early payment – savings on interest payments – you must remember to notify the creditor in writing of such intentions. For this, thirty days are given before the planned date. You should carefully read the terms of the contract and the rules for such cases in advance, since circumstances that are not always convenient for the borrower may be laid down here. Pay attention to:

  • date of early settlement;
  • minimum repayment limit (usually equal to the standard payment amount);
  • sequence of payments;
  • payment method.

The desire of citizens to get rid of the credit burden is understandable, but depending on the economic situation in the country it is objectively unprofitable to pay the debt in advance. In a situation of crisis, rising prices for goods against the backdrop of inflation, circumstances are created for debtors when a person returns less money than he took, despite the fact that the amount remains the same. In addition, at inflationary growth rates, new loans will also be provided at higher rates..

Among the loans for which it is better to pay off as quickly as possible, the priority is occupied by express loans issued in shopping centers when purchasing goods. Such an attractive form of “fast money” is expensive. The external profitability of quick processing, the absence of requirements for documents results in high rates, and the goods with express credit, even short-term, costs double cost.

Coins and hourglass

Bank limiting requirements

According to the analysis of the financial sector, 2 out of 10 loans are paid ahead of schedule, where the leaders are mortgages, then recipients of car loans and people who have taken consumer loans. For the bank, the main source of income is interest on credit products: if the amount of debt is higher, then interest charges are also large. Therefore, any bank does not want to lose interest on interest income and financial institutions are insured against the risk of early closure already at the stage of concluding a loan agreement using an annuity settlement scheme.

Today, the bank is not entitled to refuse the borrower according to the legislative norms in the field of lending, as amended by law No. 284-FZ of October 19, 2011 (under agreements signed before November 1, 2011). As a result, within the framework of legislative requirements, banks establish their own rules for the premature payment of a loan. Restrictive measures become the conditions for establishing a moratorium on the payment in the first months of the contract, specific methods of depositing money, the availability of commissions, limiting the minimum amounts for payment.

Types of loan payments

When applying for a loan, specify whether the right to choose a debt repayment scheme is provided. The features of the subsequent tactics of early cancellation depend on the option used. Banks today practice differentiated and annuity methods. The first option implies a monthly reduction in regular payments, with the second every month the borrower must pay a fixed amount.

A differentiated payment consists of a fixed, fixed amount allocated for repayment of the loan body, which is calculated in proportion to the number of months the contract is valid. The second part of the payment is interest on the loan balance. With the annuity option, the entire cost of the loan is calculated (except for a one-time fee) and then divided into the crediting period.

What loans are better to repay with differentiated payments

Under a differentiated contributions scheme, the borrower first pays large contributions, but subsequently their size decreases due to a decrease in interest on decreasing debts. When depositing funds, the remaining balance and interest accrued on it are automatically recalculated, decreasing at the same time. Choosing this scheme is more profitable for long-term and voluminous loans (mortgage, car loan), it is suitable for citizens:

  • having unstable income;
  • Those wishing to reduce the overpayment;
  • a long-term loan.

Features of repayment for annuity payments

In the question of how best to repay a consumer loan, the payment scheme is becoming a priority. In case of annuity, the installment payment before maturity is used to repay both the loan body and interest expenses. The initial schedule includes the main debt, interest and standing commissions, while the borrower pays the main share of interest payments – their large component serves accrued interest, and not the body of the loan.

By the end of the term, the main part is already going to pay off the main debt. With early contributions, the payment schedule is violated. Interest previously paid in advance is legally classified for the bank by unjustified enrichment and requires recounting. An annuity scheme is used by individuals for consumer loans. The method is beneficial to the stability of payment, budget planning and is suitable for the following categories of citizens:

  • having a stable salary;
  • not having the financial ability to pay in excess of a fixed amount;
  • a short-term loan.

Loan repayment options

Partial and full loan repayments are distinguished. In case of partial early repayment, the amount of the debt decreases by the amount deposited. Here options are possible, pre-negotiated by agreement:

  • payment is charged upon regular payment and it is necessary to have funds debited in the amount of the next payment and an additional payment;
  • due to the contribution, the main debt is immediately reduced and the amount of payments is recounted, then on the day of payment it is already necessary to pay a smaller amount.

Upon full repayment, the borrower pays the funds corresponding to the balance of the debt body in the amount with interest accrued for this period. Any repayment is beneficial for the borrower, especially with regard to the mortgage, no matter how the bank employees dissuade. In addition to financial savings, a citizen receives full right to dispose of property, exemption from compulsory property insurance.

The only minus is that not everyone can find funds for an advance payment schedule without a significant drop in the income of the family budget and the need to apply for a new loan. It should be taken into account: banks often add “pre-term” agents to the black list of people who, when they next apply for a loan, can simply be refused without explanation. Therefore, early repayment made by the end of the contract will be an additional plus to the credit history..

People at the meeting

How to repay a loan

The advanced payment algorithm is determined by specific credit conditions. As a rule, the sequence of actions of the borrower is as follows:

  1. Notify the banking organization of their planned payment. As a rule, a term of at least 14 days is established, although individual banks allow you to repay at any time without prior notice..
  2. On the day of payment, deposit the required amount on the card / account. The replenishment method is provided by the terms of the agreement.
  3. Make an application for repayment of debt ahead of schedule at the bank office.
  4. Wait for funds to be debited with confirmation by the relevant documents (receipt order, account statement) and schedule recount.
  5. Sign a new settlement schedule or receive a certificate on the complete closure of debt.
  6. Upon full payment, make sure to close bank accounts accompanying settlements under the contract and to remove the burden on collateral.
  7. Save all loan documentation, including payments.

Loan agreement

Each banking organization independently sets the rules for contributions ahead of schedule. For example, it is sufficient to have on the card / account the required amount made by any means. Some banks require cash deposits through the cashier, more advanced ones such as Sberbank, VTB-24, provide for the possibility of repayment online without visiting the office and filling out an application. To do this, the borrower needs to open a comprehensive service agreement and know the details for writing off.

With the latter method, funds can be debited not on any date, but only on the day of payment, and the size of the extraordinary amount should not be less than the next installment. When making payments through an ATM, there are restrictions on making the maximum amount (as a rule, 30000-50000 rubles). For larger contributions, you must contact the bank branch. It is important to specify the day for payment – it can coincide with the schedule or be arbitrary.

When transferring funds from another bank, please note that it takes time to transfer it, according to the rules up to five business days. The borrower must not forget that under article 805 of the Civil Code, when repaying the debt ahead of schedule, the lender is entitled to receive interest from the borrower, calculated inclusively until the day when the loan was fully repaid or in part exceeding the schedule.

Early repayment application

According to article 810 of the Civil Code, part two, the amount of a consumer (non-commercial) loan can be repaid by a citizen ahead of schedule in full or in parts on the basis of a mandatory notification to the lender thirty days (at least) before the day of return. The loan agreement may establish a shorter period for the submission of such a notice of the citizen’s intention to return the funds. So, in practice, banks provide 2 weeks for filing an appeal.

Credit recalculation

Extraordinary payment leads to a reduction in the body of the loan, the main debt. Interest paid is calculated according to special formulas that are different for differentiated and annuity schemes, but providing for a general principle – accrual on the loan balance. The smaller the debt, the lower the interest costs, so the recount of all components of payments is required in this situation.

Decrease in payment or reduction in loan term

Often, leaving no alternative to customers, banks offer only a reduction in the regular payment upon repayment before maturity, while a possible option is to shorten the expiration of the loan agreement. Psychologically, a decrease in payment is attractive to the client: the load on the monthly budget is reduced, free funds are released that can be used for early payment.

At the same time, mathematical calculations demonstrate that shortening the term of a loan gives a large percentage savings. So, with a differentiated scheme, reducing the duration of credit is even more profitable. The banks’ approach to reluctance to reduce loan terms is understandable: they lose a large share of profits, often without actually informing borrowers about the existing opportunity.

New Partial Repayment Schedule

Payment by a citizen of a next payment earlier than the deadline in a partial amount is reflected in all components of the contribution. The initially scheduled repayment schedule no longer corresponds to the balance of the debt, therefore, reviewing the schedule and signing its new edition by all parties (the credited person and the creditor) becomes a prerequisite in this situation. A new schedule, certified by the seal of the bank and the signature of the loan manager, must be issued even with the remaining 2-3 payment periods. It is also necessary to trace whether the date of periodic application has changed..

Borrower rights

Federal Law of October 19, 2011 No. 284-ФЗ “On Amendments to Articles 809 and 810 of Part Two of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation,” which entered into force on November 1, 2011, secured the right of citizens-borrowers to repay their loan debts ahead of schedule. The law applies to relations that arose under contracts concluded before the date of its entry into force. If the contract drawn up after 11/01/2011 contains conditions for penalties, commissions, fines for the extraordinary payment of debt – they are illegal and can be challenged in court.

Recalculation and receipt of interest

It is most advantageous to repay a loan before the end of the contract to mortgage borrowers – the savings on interest on the mortgage are maximized and the property is at their disposal. For such loans, as a rule, an annuity method is provided. When paying the mortgage ahead of schedule, on the basis of Article 809 of the Civil Code, the borrower has the right to demand from the banking organization the recount and reimbursement of part of the previously paid interest.

A man makes calculations using a calculator

Return insurance

Lending for the purchase of a home or a car is accompanied by the mandatory requirements of the bank to insure property in accordance with Article 31 of the Law of July 16, 1998 No. 102-ФЗ On Mortgage (Real Estate Pledge). In addition, financial institutions practice the observance of the life insurance conditions of the loaned person. The latter is carried out with the approval of the client. Having paid insurance, the borrower, besides the question of how best to repay the loan, is also puzzled by how to return the insurance funds to him in full settlement with the bank: they can reach 40% of the loan cost.

After paying off the debt, you have the right to return insurance premiums, if this is provided for in the insurance contract. If there is a clause about the impossibility to return unused insurance, closing the loan agreement ahead of time entails the loss of the right to return the installment. After making sure that there is a right of return, when applying, you must also take into account that:

  • there should not be overdue debts;
  • 5 days after registration of the contract.

The insurance company may reimburse part of the funds if more than six months have passed since the signing of the contract. A full return of insurance funds is available in situations where the debt is repaid in the first two months after issuing the insurance policy. In all cases, you need to contact the insurance company with:

  • passport
  • loan agreement (copy);
  • certificate of complete debt closure.

Refund of a part of the insurance premium upon early payment is possible in pre-trial and judicial proceedings. At the pre-trial decision stage, you need to file a claim with a banking and insurance organization. According to the legislation, 30 days are given for consideration of an application. In the absence of a response, then it is already necessary to write a statement to Rospotrebnadzor (the review time is the same – 30 days). If the answer of this instance is not satisfactory, you can appeal the actions of the financial institution by filing a lawsuit in court.

There are cases when insurers can pay a loan instead of a citizen-borrower. This is prescribed by the points of the insurance policy and depends on the type of insurance:

  • Life insurance of the loaned person. The basis for payments is the death of the borrower, his disability due to a serious illness, disability.
  • Security of collateral. An unintentional damage to property (natural disasters, fire, flooding) is considered as an insurance event..
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