The content of the article
- What is labor regulation
- Goals and objectives of standardization
- Types of labor standards
- Rate of time
- Production rate
- Service rate
- Labor rationing in the legislation
- Labor rationing methods
- Rationing and remuneration
- Forms and systems of remuneration at the enterprise
- Definition of salaries
- Development of the procedure for calculating incentive payments and bonuses
- Who is engaged in the regulation of labor in the enterprise
- Study and analysis of the cost of working time
- Development, replacement and revision of labor standards
In order to use mental potential, physical abilities, experience and skills of employees with the minimum cost, but at the maximum return, an entire system has been created. Labor rationing is the process by which the organization determines the plan of the employee’s physical or mental costs in the workplace to establish balanced relationships between the employee’s efforts and their payment.
What is labor regulation
One of the most important parts of the management of social and labor relations is the regulation of labor. Under this concept is a process in which the physical or mental costs necessary to carry out a specific unit of work by teams or individual specialists are analyzed, cost control is carried out. The analysis allows us to establish the relationship between the measures of work and the costs of it. Norms cover main and auxiliary production.
Goals and objectives of standardization
Rationing has several functions, performs more than one task. The functionality of the process includes the following items:
- production planning;
- workflow organization;
- distribution of duties;
- performance appraisal of individual workers to encourage.
Rationing is designed to solve several problems. The main one is to ensure the setting of a scientifically based measure of labor costs for all types of work for each employee engaged in production or its management. In addition, the process of forming a regulatory balance solves a number of tasks:
- identification and use of reserves to increase productivity;
- reduction in the cost of finished products;
- improved utilization of production capacities;
- assessment of opportunities to saturate the market with competitors.
Types of labor standards
Based on centrally developed standards, an enterprise or company independently formulates its labor standards – the volume of the labor task (for example, the number of parts) that an employee (team) must complete in a certain time. They are designed to reflect various aspects of work. Currently, the main types of functional value are the norms:
- normalized tasks.
Rate of time
The working time that is set for the employee (team), taking into account the qualifications and conditions for performing a specific unit of work, is called the norm of time. The normalization of working time is measured in human hours, the calculation of the norm of time for work is carried out according to the formula: HBP = TPZ + Top + Brake + Total + TPT, in which HBP is the norm, and the remaining elements are the time:
- TPZ – for the preparation and completion of work;
- Top – operational;
- Torm – spent on the maintenance of the workplace;
- Total – spent on vacation, personal needs;
- Tpt – necessary for technological breaks.
To solve production problems, it is important to understand what the rate of production is. This is an indicator that sets the amount of products that an employee must make per shift or hour. When calculating the qualifications of a specialist, organizational and technical conditions are taken into account. This coefficient can be calculated according to different formulas, Nvir = Tcm / Nvr is often used, in which:
- Nvyr is the rate of production;
- Tcm – fund of time;
- HBP – the norm of time.
Another important indicator is the service rate, which determines the number of objects that require maintenance in a given time. An example is the number of machines that the installer must set up per shift. A subspecies of such a norm is the manageability norm, which is applied to managerial positions. The calculation of service standards is carried out according to the formula Nob = Td / 1ob, where:
- Nob – the norm of service;
- TD – the actual fund of working time;
- 1ob – set time for servicing 1 unit of equipment.
Labor rationing in the legislation
The Labor Code establishes the basic requirements for the regulation of labor activity. The document contains the section “Payment and regulation of labor”, in which there is a section “Rationing of labor.” Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation “On the rules for the development and approval of standard labor standards” of 11.11.2002 reveals the essence of the article. Additionally, a number of documents regulating this issue are used, they include the following:
- Gosstroy recommendations of the Russian Federation on labor standards;
- Order of the Ministry of Construction of the Russian Federation for employees of bath and laundry facilities, funeral services, hotel workers;
- Ministry of Culture order for library staff;
- Ministry of Agriculture recommendations for veterinarians.
Labor rationing methods
To a decisive degree, the accuracy of the established amount of time spent on work depends on the chosen method of determining the norm. This concept hides a set of methods for studying, analyzing the processes of labor activity, measuring labor, time costs, identifying normative factors and other things. An accurate study will give an indicator of the rate of labor costs, which is necessary and sufficient. All methods are divided into 2 groups: analytical and total. In Germany, 7 methods have been developed:
- calculation of process time;
- multi-moment observation method;
- comparison and assessment method;
- systems of set values of time;
- planning time method.
When the determination of the necessary time is carried out as a whole, without analysis of the labor process, normative factors, modeling of the effective structure of the labor process, we are talking about the total method. Rationing of works by the summary method has three varieties:
- experienced – uses the personal experience of specialists involved in the field of regulation;
- static – data obtained from statistical data;
- comparative (by analogy) – information obtained from a similar field with established standards is compared with the work in question.
If necessary, increase productivity, labor efficiency using the analytical method. Its essence lies in the fact that the setting of the norm is carried out on the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the actually existing process. As a result, optimal methods of performing each part of the work are selected. It is customary to distinguish the division of such a technique into several varieties:
- experimental-analytical – the study of the labor process in natural conditions of production;
- settlement and analytical – setting indicators according to the standards of the operating mode of machines, time standards for certain operations;
- use of standard standards.
Rationing and remuneration
Studies show that within one industry, productivity can vary by a factor of 2–3. The key factor affecting the results achieved is wages as the main element of employee stimulation. Organization of remuneration at any enterprise involves the development of:
- forms, systems of payment for labor activity;
- salary systems;
- bonus calculation parameters.
From the side of the state apparatus there is an effect on the regulation of wages. The main factor is the establishment of a minimum wage. Payment requirements are also regulated in cases where the standards have not been met. If the failure is the employer’s fault, then the employee must receive an amount equivalent to the average salary or more. With the fault of the employee, the salary is calculated based on the real amount of work performed. If the reasons do not depend on the employee or employer, then the employee is guaranteed the payment of at least 2/3 of the salary.
Forms and systems of remuneration at the enterprise
For each enterprise, the choice of form and remuneration of workers is of great importance. Depending on the quality, quantity and results of labor, when interacting with regulation and tariff systems, the procedure for calculating earnings is determined. Remuneration is the most important element in motivating, attracting and retaining employees in the enterprise. In practice, two cost accounting systems are used: tariff and organizational and technical, in each of which meters are used: working hours and quantity of manufactured products.
Definition of salaries
For managers, specialists and employees the salary system is used. In accordance with the position, the official salary for the month is established. Each company has a list of posts and salaries corresponding to them. Differentiation of salaries may depend on qualifications, degrees, titles and other features. Payment of managers is specified in the employment contract and is called a contract.
Such a payment system may provide for bonus payments for exceeding quantitative or qualitative indicators. The legislation provides for a number of mandatory compensatory allowances and surcharges:
- for work in the evening and at night;
- for labor activity on holidays and weekends;
- minor employees;
- for traveling work.
Development of the procedure for calculating incentive payments and bonuses
Many enterprises use incentive payments to reward employees. A bonus is a payment that is given to an employee for achieving a certain result, for fulfilling duties in excess of the basic salary. A bonus system is being developed by representatives of the labor and salary department, the employee development service, and after that it is approved by management. The provision on bonuses is recorded as an independent act or as an annex to collective agreements.
The employer has the right to independently develop the procedure for calculating incentive bonuses. Although the system may be individual for each case, the following points should be included in it:
- types and frequency of bonuses, payments for staff;
- results of work that give the right to a prize;
- circle of persons who apply for a bonus;
- indicators on which the availability and size of the premium depends;
- rules for calculating payments;
- depremization conditions.
Who is engaged in the regulation of labor in the enterprise
For large enterprises, a whole staff of employees is involved in calculating the standardization, and for a small organization, only one person (personnel) can be involved, sometimes the introduction of a freelance specialist is required. Engineers for standardization or organization of the process (standardizers) have knowledge about industry and intersectoral standards, they know the materials by which the organization of labor standards in a certain sequence and other subtleties necessary to solve the tasks.
Study and analysis of the cost of working time
Normalization specialists study jobs in order to determine the possibility of increasing labor efficiency by improving quality or quantity. Using standardization techniques, they form labor standards for specific posts or work categories. As a result of the activities of a professional, it is possible to eliminate the loss of time, determine the optimal methods of labor, build the structure of operations and the sequence of actions, identify the reasons for non-compliance or significant over-fulfillment of standards to optimize production.
Development, replacement and revision of labor standards
When introducing new or improving old equipment, technologies that reduce the complexity and workloads, there is a need to review the adopted rules. The reason for the recalculation of standards cannot be the achievement of a high level of product development by individual performers using new techniques, technologies or improving jobs on a personal initiative. The process of making changes is consistent with the process of introducing standards in the organization for the first time.