Pepper spray for self defense

The content of the article

Protecting one’s own safety to the detriment of the health of the striker is a just cause, but often ends with a dock. Pepper spray is designed as a civilian weapon of self-defense: a broad pepper spray of an irritant when sprayed into the opponent’s face causes shock and powerful tearing. The use of gas weapons does not require special permission – the contents of the container are a non-hazardous means of protection for life and health. Ingestion causes irritation of the skin and mucous membranes without damage, except in exceptional cases.

What is pepper spray

Self-protection gas canisters are sealed metal or plastic containers in which the active substance in high concentration is contained under high pressure. An aerosol cloud or a jet of liquid pepper extract is similar in principle to the action of tear gas and causes severe irritation, leading to the failure of the enemy. The harmless action of the irritant in most cases guarantees the absence of criminal, administrative responsibility for the defender. Remember that the shelf life of a weapon is limited to 36 months..

In what cases is applied

The pepper cylinder is used at close range when there is a threat to the life and health of the defender. The effective range of a gas self-defense means depends on the principle of operation of a particular cylinder and is 1-4 meters. An obstacle to spraying pepper spray, aerosol is a strong wind, being inside a closed room, low temperature. These 2 factors will turn the weapon of the defender against himself or level the damaging effect. It is better to sprinkle an opponent from a pepper spray in the following cases:

  1. The beginning of a conflict with an aggressive person, a group of people, if a fight is inevitable.
  2. Persecution of the defender – spray a cloud of gas behind your back in the faces of the aggressors.
  3. Attack of a pack of stray dogs, large wild animals. Remember that with very large specimens, a gas stream will only increase aggressiveness.

Use against the pursuer

Mechanism of action

Pepper spray, which is inside a small spray can under pressure, is thrown forward at high speed, getting on the skin, mucous membranes of the attacker. In case of successful use, the so-called blepharospasm is a natural reaction of the brain to an external stimulus that causes the muscles that close the eyes to contract. The enemy for a short period of time completely loses sight, and the accompanying powerful irritating effect will make the aggressor forget about previous intentions. If the active substance gets into your eyes, flush the affected area with water..

Pepper gas oleoresin capsicum

It is indicated by the standardized OS label, which means Oleoresim Capsicum – a mixture of irritating effect, which consists of esters, fatty acids, pepper extracts and resins. The OS substance causes severe irritation of the human mucous membranes. The upper respiratory tract, eyes, and mouth are subject to the strongest influence. A jet of gas containing this mixture is one of the most effective means of self-defense against a single adversary. Irritation from getting pepper spray provokes profuse lacrimation, severe cough.

Types of pepper cans

Pepper cans are classified according to two characteristics: the method of spraying and the composition of the active substance. According to the method of ejecting gas, weapons are divided into:

  1. Aerosol spraying. The substance is ejected in a large cone in front of the nozzle. Minimum range, maximum efficiency at close range.
  2. Aerosol jet. Differs from the previous one in a smaller angle of defeat. It is considered universal. Effective distance is longer.
  3. Inkjet. The liquid is fired by a tight directed stream. Not recommended for people who doubt their own accuracy..
  4. Foamy. Similar to previous, but irritant harder to wipe from affected areas.
  5. Gel. Pepper spray cans of this type have the largest effective range (3-5 m). The gel adheres perfectly to the skin, mucous membrane.

Aerosol spray

Pepper spray cans with this type of active spray are best suited for close range applications. The gas cloud extends over a distance of 1-1.5 m in a wide cone. This feature provides the ability to create an effective protective gas curtain. To get through it, the aggressor must inhale the irritant. A significant drawback is the danger of spraying indoors or during rain, wind. A strong air displacement will lead to the neutralization of the curtain, its removal from the enemy or the defender.

Aerosol spray

The striking cone narrows, the effective range increases. It can be used to repel the attacks of a group of individuals, a single opponent, stray dogs. Reduced lesion area allows targeted spraying of irritant. The versatility of the method of distributing peppers has made it popular among manufacturers of civilian self-defense equipment. The disadvantage is the dependence on the wind, like all aerosols.

Jet spraying

Pepper spray releases a powerful directed stream of liquid. In composition, it resembles a standard pepper or matches it. It has excellent accuracy indicators at a distance of 3-4 meters. A clear drawback is the need for precise aiming. It copes well with single opponents, permanently incapacitating them. Liquid irritant is poorly washed off, and reflex rubbing of the substance will cause an increase in the irritating effect.

Jet spraying


Pepper spray throws a powerful stream of thick foam clinging to the enemy. The foam composition is poorly washed off, with wiping the area of ​​damage increases. Advantages are similar to jet spraying: good effective range, the possibility of targeted shooting, eliminating accidental hits on passers-by. The disadvantage is difficulties with aiming at moving targets, long flight times of heavy foam, low trajectory flatness.


The pepper spray, equipped with a gel, perfectly protects from a single target. The sticky watery composition is not washed by simple means at hand: the water is not afraid of him, the rag will smear even more. A significant minus is the inability to use against animals. The likelihood of the gel getting into the oral cavity, the eyes are very small. Effective range is 2-3 m.

How to choose a gas can for self-defense

The purchase of a pepper spray should be thought out, based on verified information, someone else’s, personal experience in handling civilian non-lethal self-defense weapons. Study the characteristics, factors, on the basis of which pepper is chosen:

  • The number of uses. Choose reusable pepper cans if you are not sure about the success of their use. Volumetric aerosols can create a complete gas curtain.
  • Spraying method. Situational indicator: it is better for drivers to keep a gel, foamy spray inside the glove compartment. Aerosol is suitable for pedestrians.
  • Sizes, volume. It’s easier to get a small cylinder, put it into working position.


Different companies are selling their options for pepper spray. The main distinguishing features are the concentration of the OS, the type and range of spraying, its duration, the number of applications. The most popular manufacturers are:

  • Chiton. Makes Shock aerosols with 23% hot pepper extract. The effect of the application lasts up to half an hour; rated for 7 seconds of continuous spraying.
  • Tyumen aerosols. Among them, the Control-UM model is very popular. The composition has additional additives designed to suppress animal aggression.
  • TechCrim. Much attention is paid to improving spray cans Black and Torch 2 with a wide spray cone, designed to stop a large number of opponents.

Effective Range

Depends on the method of spraying, the pressure inside the housing. For foam, jet and gel spraying, the effective range will be 3-5 m, but the lesion will be narrow, corresponding to the width of the jet at the moment of contact with the surface. Aerosols have a shorter attack distance (1-2 m), but create a protective curtain over a large area, helping to defend themselves against a group of opponents. Examples include:

  • Epee – 3-3.5 m, jet;
  • Hot pepper – 1.5 m, aerosol;
  • Lady Black – 2 m jet spray.

Self-defense sword

Continuous use time

This parameter determines how many opponents and how much they will be able to hit until the irritant is completely used up. Remember that the duration of use does not always depend on the volume of the capsule. Spray pepper spray will end faster than aerosol spray. Choose a weapon of self-defense based on the intended circumstances of use. Consider options with different durations of use:

  • C360 gel – 4-5 seconds;
  • Black inkjet – 3-4 seconds;
  • Torch 2 – 7-8 seconds.


Determines how much active suspension is placed inside a metal capsule. In direct proportion to the volume is the duration of continuous operation, compactness. To order a large cylinder is for transportation and use from the machine. In this case, a gel or foam pepper is purchased, which does not harm the defender. Pedestrians are better suited for small models designed for 1-2 times. Manufacturers offer the following volume options:

  • Lady Black Aerosol – 25 ml;
  • Epee, inkjet – 100 ml;
  • Foamy Dragon – 650 ml.

Minimum operating temperature

Cold climatic zones pose a serious threat to the operability of many devices. Peppers are no exception – inside the capsule contains liquid under pressure, which can freeze. The threat is not only the failure of the device, but also the expansion of the suspension during freezing – this can lead to rupture of the cylinder with a spray of volatile contents. Manufacturers dilute caustic liquid with special anti-freeze formulations. The minimum operating temperature of peppers is:

  • Pepper spray – -40 degrees;
  • Burning pepper – -10 degrees;
  • Sword – -20 degrees.


Choose the size of the pepper according to your convenience, storage location. Remember that a compact capsule is easier to grab from a bag or pocket than a large liter bottle. Size is related to the volume of active substance that the metal sheath may contain. Small pepper pepper will end after 4-8 seconds of continuous use. The produced capsules are divided into 3 categories:

  • 25 ml 1-2 uses, fits easily in the palm of your hand.
  • 65-100 ml. The universal means of self-defense, involving repeated use.
  • 100-1000 ml. Personal protective equipment for the vehicle, at home. The number of uses reaches 15-30.

Where to buy pepper spray

Individual non-lethal civilian stopping weapons that do not cause direct damage can be sold freely. You can buy a gas spray for self-defense in Moscow, St. Petersburg, and other cities on the shelves of the military trade, where it is an integral part of the range. You can order goods with delivery from a certified manufacturer through a specialized online store that sells civil defense weapons.

Range of gas protection products

Which gas spray is the most effective

Product Name and Manufacturer

Spray type

Irritant and scope

Volume (ml)

a brief description of

Advantages and disadvantages

Price (rubles)

Heaton, Shock


oleoresin capsicum, up to 2.5 meters


A good option for self-defense with a decent range. Perfectly stops a group of people, can create a gas curtain.

Low price, small size, long range.


Techcream, pepper spray


oleoresin capsicum, up to 2 meters


A popular product on the non-lethal civilian weapons market. Compares favorably with the width of the cone.

Great price, frequent discounts from the manufacturer. Low gas cloud flight speed.


Techcream, Black

aerosol spray

OS 20%, 2 meters


A frequent choice of police units is able to create a wide curtain of tear gas. Differs from analogs in the increased radius of spraying.

Excellent accuracy, wide operating temperature range.


Hot pepper, Techcream

aerosol spray

OS 20%, 2 meters


A compact version of non-lethal civilian weapons, very comfortable to carry. It can be quickly pulled out of the pocket of a jacket, bag, etc..

Small size, easy to spray. Disposability, small lesion radius.


Dragon, Techcream


OS 95%, TS 3.1%, 2.5 meters


Duration of spraying is one of the most important characteristics of pepper. Dragon strongly overtakes analogues in this parameter.

Wide spot of contact, long spraying. Increased cost, decent weight.


Pepper 11-A, Techcream


OS 95%, 2 meters


Reusable device designed for 8-10 short sprays. Due to the large spot of contact, one short-term spray is enough to neutralize the enemy.

Large spray cone, decent speed of propagation of the substance. Low temperature range.


Torch2, Techcream


OS 95%, 3 meters


The increased range provides greater security of use, the addition of a special CS police irritant prolongs the effect.

Large contact patch, small size, increased effective distance. Fast content usage.


Application rules

With extreme accuracy, it is worth pepper spray, observing a number of rules:

  1. Do not spray aerosol indoors to avoid personal injury.
  2. Follow the instructions, use this civil defense weapon strictly for its intended purpose.
  3. Remember that administrative or criminal liability arises in case of unjustified use of pepper.
  4. Do not save the resource of the spray can when attacking – one click may not be enough.

Girl is defending herself

Possible consequences

When oleoresin capsicum enters the various parts of the human body, a strong irritation reaction immediately follows. The consequences of using pepper are as follows:

  • Burn. Direct eye contact with a suspension with a high concentration of the active substance may result in a chemical burn..
  • Edema. In addition to irritation, inhalation of the irritant causes a coughing fit, sneezing, and difficulty breathing. An allergy sufferer has a high chance of lung edema, suffocation.

How to provide first aid

Familiarize yourself with the rules for the provision of medical care in case of pepper spray on the body:

  • Do not rub the affected area – this enhances the effect of irritant.
  • Dampen the contact area with a damp cloth to remove caustic suspension from the skin.
  • Lacrimal fluid effectively copes with washing the eyes of the active substance of the balloon. Blink more often to cause profuse lacrimation.
  • Washing with fat milk, pure water, a solution of soda also helps.

Advantages and disadvantages

Peppers have their own advantages and disadvantages, limiting or helping to use this type of weapon. Check out the downsides of tanks:

  • low range of use;
  • requires some skill;
  • the enemy is able to evade gas;
  • loses effectiveness in windy, cold weather;
  • indoor use is not allowed.

The obvious advantages include:

  • low cost of weapons;
  • low chance of bodily harm;
  • small sizes;
  • the convenience of use.
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