Placenta along the anterior wall – correct presentation and causes of deviations, diagnosis and dangerous complications

The content of the article



In the first few days after conception, a placenta is formed. It is needed to transport nutrients to the fetus, protect against infections, and remove waste products. There are several options for attaching this embryonic organ. For women with a placenta located on the front wall of the uterus, it is important to find out if this is a pathology and how it affects the health of the child and the course of pregnancy.

The correct location of the placenta

To find out whether the condition when the fetus is attached to the anterior wall of the uterus belongs to pathologies, it is important to understand which option is considered correct. Normal development of the baby is possible only with an optimal position in the womb of the “child’s place”. From a physiological point of view, posterior placenta attachment is correct. But doctors are absolutely sure that the embryo will never begin to develop in a dangerous place for this (affected areas of the mucosa after abortion, myoma nodes).

During pregnancy, the uterine cavity is not uniformly stretched. The front wall increases with the fetus, becomes thinner. In this case, the density of the back is preserved if an embryo is attached to it. The placenta will function normally only with minimal loads on it. More successful is the attachment of the fetus to the posterior wall of the uterus. The advantages of this situation:

  • the immobility of the “child’s place” reduces the risk of a miscarriage;
  • reduced risk of injury when a stomach is struck;
  • minimizes the risk of increment of the chorion (placental membrane) to the uterus;
  • the child, when moving, pushes the placenta less;
  • with caesarean section, the risk of opening bleeding is reduced;
  • lower risk of detachment, which appears with an increased tone of the uterus against the background of the fetus attached in front.

Other placenta location options

At the first ultrasound, pregnant women will recognize the attachment of a “child’s place.” The posterior position of the embryonic organ is normal. Attaching the fetus to the anterior wall of the uterus is a less successful option. There are also other options for the location of the embryonic organ. Chorion can be localized in the back of the left or right, depending on the condition of the uterus and other characteristics of the body.

Low placentation is a diagnosis that is made by pregnant women, if the edge of the placenta is located further than the internal pharynx of the uterus – more than 6 cm. This condition can be caused by inflammatory diseases of the endometrium (internal mucous membrane of the uterus), infections, history of abortion, frequent pregnancies, etc. . Nuances:

  • Low placentation is dangerous for premature detachment, hypoxia, obstruction of the birth canal and bleeding.
  • Patients with this diagnosis may be prescribed additional ultrasound.
  • If at 36 weeks the situation has not changed, a cesarean section is performed.

The term presentation of obstetricians is used to mean the attachment of the membranes of the placenta in the cervical region. As mentioned above, low localization of the embryonic organ is fraught with complications. Depending on the physiological characteristics, in addition to lower placentation, there are other previa. The classification is as follows:

  1. Complete placenta previa on the anterior wall. The embryo is blocking the internal pharynx. With complete relaxation of the uterus, the baby will not be able to pass through the birth canal due to the damper resulting from this arrangement of the embryonic organ.
  2. Partial presentation. At the same time, the uterine opening partially overlaps the “child’s place”. During childbirth, the baby’s head will not be able to go through a narrow channel of paths..
  3. Central. This situation is characterized by a complete blockage of the cervical canal (the place of transition of the cervix into the body) by the embryonic organ. In this case, a natural resolution of pregnancy is impossible. Caesarean section is prescribed to save the child..
  4. Regional presentation of the placenta along the anterior wall provides for the development of a “child place” at the edge of the internal pharynx. Natural births are possible, but there is a risk of acute hypoxia and fetal death.
  5. Lateral presentation. This situation is characterized by a partial overlap of the cervical opening, due to which the process of natural childbirth is complicated.

Types of placenta previa

The reasons for the location of the placenta on the front wall

Pregnancy is not always the ideal scenario. The embryonic organ can attach to the side or front, which often happens recently. Some doctors believe that the chorion along the front wall of the uterus is a variant of the norm, which needs special monitoring. There are many reasons for this condition. The mechanism of attachment of the placenta in front is not well understood, but the following can provoke its violations:

  • change in the endometrium;
  • multiple pregnancy;
  • myoma;
  • physiological characteristics of the ovum;
  • inflammatory diseases, infections of the reproductive system;
  • adhesions, scars on the walls of the uterus;
  • repeated curettage (abortion);
  • previous surgery – cesarean section.

Complications

Future mothers with this feature care about whether the placenta on the front wall is dangerous. Experts do not give a definite answer. Pregnancy with such a fastening of the fetus can proceed normally and be resolved by natural birth. But there are certain risks of complications. All of them are connected with the fact that the placental walls are of high density. When the embryo is attached to the front of the embryonic organ, the process of overly active stretching of the embryo begins. Possible complications include:

  1. Insufficient functioning of the “child’s place”, disruption of the process of transporting oxygen and nutrients to the fetus.
  2. Gestosis.
  3. Placental insufficiency.
  4. Movement of the “child’s place” down. When reducing the distance to the uterine pharynx to 4 cm, anterior placenta previa is diagnosed, which entails the risk of miscarriage, bleeding.
  5. Low previa (rare cases when the “child’s place” can completely close the uterus) At the same time, natural childbirth is excluded.
  6. Partial or complete detachment of the placenta (develops against the background of presentation on the front wall and placental insufficiency).
  7. Internal or external bleeding, hypoxia, fetal death. Such complications develop if, when the embryo is located on the front wall in the later stages, the intensive movements of the baby will lead to an increase in the tone of the uterus and the passage of the “child’s place” from it.
  8. The growth of the placenta is noted when placing a “child’s place” in front and too strong attachment to the uterus. The risk of this complication increases sharply in women who have had abortions, cesarean section, inflammatory diseases in the past..

Placental insufficiency

Signs

Fastening the fetus to the front wall of the uterus does not affect the well-being of a woman. Such an arrangement of the embryonic organ of a pregnant woman will become known only after passing a full examination and ultrasound. Indirect symptoms of chorion along the anterior wall are the following:

  • the abdomen is atypically large;
  • weak sensation of fetal movements;
  • poor listening to the baby’s heartbeat (the sound may not be caught at all in the absence of a pathology of the cardiovascular system).

Often, unpleasant symptoms of the condition appear when the “child’s place” begins to fall down and presentation is developed. Expectant mothers with the fetus located on the front wall should pay attention to the following:

  • heaviness, pain in the lower abdomen;
  • bleeding
  • spotting vaginal discharge brown;
  • varying degrees of bleeding.

Diagnostics

The sooner doctors reveal such a feature of pregnancy as the location of the placenta on the front wall, the easier it will be to prevent complications. Expectant mothers should undergo all examinations at the appointed time. Diagnosis of the condition is not difficult. It is impossible to make an accurate diagnosis without an ultrasound scan. A complete picture of the location of the fetus and possible risks is given only by ultrasound of pregnant women. Doctors make the final verdict on the basis of the results:

  • gynecological examination;
  • palpation of the abdomen;
  • Ultrasound scan.

Ultrasound during pregnancy

Pregnancy and childbirth

In itself, the front mount of the “child’s place” does not bring the future mother any trouble and does not affect the well-being of the woman. The condition is a feature of the course of pregnancy and does not require special treatment. It is important to note that it is impossible to affect the location of the placenta, but pregnancy with an anterior location of the embryonic organ requires constant and close monitoring. The doctor must monitor the patient’s condition in order to identify complications in time.

To reduce the risk of adverse effects, pregnant women with anterior fetal attachment recommend the following:

  1. Refuse from serious physical exertion, provide rest, avoid stress and excitement.
  2. With an increase in the tone of the uterus, you should rarely touch the abdomen, so as not to cause detachment of the placenta. This is especially important in the third trimester..
  3. It is important not to miss doctor appointments in order to identify changes in the location of the fetus in time.

If the pregnancy proceeded without complications, then the patient is assigned a natural birth. The process of the appearance of the baby can be easier than with a different arrangement of the embryonic organ. Another thing is when a woman is shown a cesarean section. The anterior location of the fetus complicates the operation, increases the risk of bleeding. This is due to the need to make an incision at the attachment point. To reduce the risk of blood loss, doctors take into account the peculiarities of the location of the “child’s place” and adjust the course of surgery.

Rate article
Tips on any topic from experts
Add comment

By clicking the "Submit comment" button, I consent to the processing of personal data and accept privacy policy