The content of the article
- What is a shift method of work
- Features of the organization of the watch in Moscow and St. Petersburg
- Legal regulation
- What is a shift according to the Labor Code of the Russian Federation
- The order of the enterprise on the organization of the rotational method
- Types of Shifts
- What is the difference between a shift from a business trip
- Conditions for organizing labor when working on a rotational basis
- Who can work
- Employment Restriction
- Organization of work and rest
- Full cycle of shift work
- Shift schedule
- Shift duration
- Place of residence for shift workers
- Shift camps
- Work without building a complex for living
- Summarized time tracking
- Allowances and surcharges
- Compensation for irregular working hours
- Severe labor allowance
- Granting days of extra vacation
- Payment for inter-shift rest
- Advantages and disadvantages of shift work
In search of decent earnings, in our difficult times, questions about shift work are increasingly being heard. Such employment often involves working outside the home, in the areas of production, industry, and expeditions. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this type of activity? Before you agree to this type of cooperation, find out about your rights and obligations, working hours, vacation periods, days off and other issues.
What is a shift method of work
Traditionally, the shift method is a shift activity, in season, temporary or permanent. No need to confuse shift work and shift work. After the end of the working day, shift workers cannot go home and stay for some time at the production site itself, and shift work is when they work time and go home.
More frequent vacancies in the Far North and its sparsely populated areas, where there is production. If you search on the Internet, you can find many shift jobs, both for specialized qualified specialists, and for ordinary handymen, cooks, security guards. The main direction is production and industry:
- Mining of oil and gas.
- Exploration and mining of minerals, precious metals, coal deposits, etc..
- Rail transport.
- Fish farming and others.
What is the reason for the popularity of the method? The main function is the need and instruction of the employer in a large number of employees. Although such labor is paid more expensive, more costs are required, the industry employer is ready to provide employees with all the necessary conditions, to ensure all payments. Indeed, the main criterion is the result – a well-established production process without interruptions and interruptions (for example, in the production of petroleum products it is important to comply with all technical and timelines).
Where is employment most prevalent? In the first place – inaccessible and sparsely populated areas in Russia – for example, in the Far North. Reconstruction and construction of large facilities of industrial or cultural significance, their further maintenance and maintenance, is carried out by shift workers. Great experience is not required. Attracting foreign citizens for employment in factories, manufacturing factories, and in the service sector, this is also work on a rotational basis.
Features of the organization of the watch in Moscow and St. Petersburg
Not only in the North, but also in large cities there is a great need for labor. And large companies are more loyal to employees and do not always look at experience, length of service, education and existing skills. Large cities such as St. Petersburg and Moscow are constantly expanding, which by itself increases the need for construction companies.
The vacancies offered in the labor markets in the capitals are associated not only with construction, but also with the increase and improvement of infrastructure, foremen, drivers, movers, security guards, workers in super and hypermarkets are always needed. Not every woman will be able to find such employment for herself, but there are vacancies for them as well – a warehouse manager, a nanny, a nurse, an au pair, a cashier in a store, and everything related to the service sector. In all these areas of activity there is a lot of competition, which increases the number of vacancies.
This organization of labor is beneficial to the employer, because it significantly increases productivity. In this case, the hiring party must provide employees with all the conditions for living, to ensure reception. These are either specially created residential towns or places in dormitories. And, before you go to work on a shift, it is worth clarifying the issue of living conditions with the employer.
Before getting a job in a company on a rotational basis, it will not be superfluous to familiarize yourself with the Labor Code of the Russian Federation; such activities are regulated by a specific section of the Law. According to article 297 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation, shift is a type of legal labor activity when it is impossible to return a worker to his place of residence daily. This type of employment is not a business trip, a shift is considered to be all working time spent in production (shift), and inter-shift rest. Registration is made under an employment contract.
The working time should not exceed one month in duration, although the employer can increase the service life to three months, having previously substantiated his decision by an order indicating the reasons for the increase in shift and facilities. The length of the working day by law should not exceed 12 hours. Everything that above can be considered as processing and is paid additionally (part 1 of article 299 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation). The schedule is set by the tenant.
On shift, labor time is constant, without days off, the working day is 12 hours, then taking into account these hours, processing takes place and unused days off remain, which should be at least 4 per month. These overtime hours are compensated by payment in the amount of the daily tariff rate, or days off. Leave or vacation, in this case, are carried out outside the shift facility at the place of residence (part 3 of article 301 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation).
Often the shift is located at a considerable distance from the employee’s place of residence and you need to somehow get to the point. From the collection point, which is appointed by the tenant company to the office, the fare is paid by the tenant, while the days spent on the trip are considered working and are paid at the daily rate (part 8 of article 302 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation). But the employee will have to get to the collection point on his own, according to the law, the employer does not pay for this period of the journey, unless otherwise provided by internal orders and contracts of the shift facility.
What is a shift according to the Labor Code of the Russian Federation
The shift method is a special form of the labor process “away from home”, the basis of which is the inability to ensure the daily return of workers to their place of permanent residence (part 1 of article 297 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation). It is understood that the employer guarantees the provision of all living conditions, provides life support, arranges delivery from the collection point to the destination.
The order of the enterprise on the organization of the rotational method
Before deciding on the introduction of a shift method of organizing labor, the enterprise carries out a feasibility, economic calculation, on the basis of which the expediency and efficiency of the transition to a new type of work is taken. The administration or manager issues an order that the company transfers or introduces shift work. Approval of the order includes:
- the fact of change, transfer and their implementation at the enterprise;
- summarized time tracking;
- for what period is the cumulative working time taken into account;
- terms of remuneration, specifically:
- private enterprises set their level of allowance for a shift; in state institutions this allowance is regulated by law;
- coefficient by area;
- allowance and percentage of the allowance “northern”;
- the duration of the shift, the number of days of work and days of rest;
- sometimes a list of workers who are prohibited from engaging in this type of activity is displayed;
- a note on the minutes of the trade union meeting (why do we need a trade union protocol in this case? A trade union is a means of regulating and agreeing on all conditions an agreement with employees so that all procedural and legislative acts are observed);
- Mandatory mark on familiarization by employees with the contents of the order.
Types of Shifts
Shifts are different – intra-regional and expeditionary, or between regions. If the intra-regional type involves a not too long period of activity – 2 weeks and the facility itself is not too far from the place of residence of the employee, then the second is longer. The shift-expeditionary or interregional option not only lasts longer than a regular shift, but the object is further located. A research expedition can also be considered a shift work method..
What is the difference between a shift from a business trip
Do not confuse with a business trip. There is some difference:
- A business trip is a trip to carry out a management assignment. Shift – a full 12-hour shift.
- Payment. On a business trip, a tariff working day, plus some allowances. During employment, a separate legal contract is concluded, which stipulates the conditions of remuneration of labor, the composition, volume of labor and the term of employment.
- A medical examination is not required when traveling on a business trip, while long-term shift work requires a medical book (contraindication should be noted).
- On a business trip, there are no restrictions on the length of stay on departure, neither minimum nor maximum. On duty, the duration of the service is not more than one month (in some cases up to three months).
Conditions for organizing labor when working on a rotational basis
Such employment is beneficial for both the employee and the employer. But, it should be understood that this type of activity is not only remoteness from home and residence on the territory of the employer, but also hard, multi-day physical labor, in severe climatic conditions, which not everyone can do. It is very important to understand that only a healthy person in good physical shape will be able to work and not undermine his health.
Who can work
The most important criteria for selecting applicants are physics and human health. To get settled in this area, it is necessary to undergo a medical examination, which will help not only to identify diseases that impede hiring, but also to prevent the risk of their occurrence. Mandatory permission from a physician, cardiologist (the risk of cardiovascular disease in the Far North is very high), a narcologist and a psychiatrist. Inspection by other doctors is regulated by the enterprise, depending on the type of activity, and is approved by an internal order and a local act.
A separate category of citizens cannot get a shift:
- guardians of three or more children;
- persons who have not undergone a medical examination, or are not admitted as a result of a medical examination confirming incapacity for work. Such citizens may be prohibited from working on duty or restrictions may be imposed..
Organization of work and rest
Counting working hours is different from counting a regular service. In accounting, the entire working period is displayed, including the time spent on the road, inter-shift rest. The working day should not be more than 12 hours, taking into account the lunch break. You can’t go to work in two shifts in a row. The number of days of rest must be at least 4 and occur on any day of the week.
The shift schedule and its appointment are set by the employer. The optimal schedule is 2 weeks of work, 2 weeks of rest. But, at some facilities, the shift period can be 30 and 60 days. Rest between shifts is called inter-shift, carried out by the employee outside the facility. It is understood that the place of residence. This type of vacation is periodic and is provided several times during the year. At the same time, leave is paid at a standard rate, without allowances for the harsh climate region and working conditions..
Full cycle of shift work
In general, you can display the time taken into account when calculating the shift from and to in the list:
- time spent on the way from the collection point (set by the employer) to the final destination;
- time spent on the direct implementation of the direct duties of the employee;
- and in reverse order – the days spent traveling from the place of work to the collection point;
- inter-shift time period.
To optimize and normalize working time at the enterprise operating on a rotational basis, a special schedule is created. It displays the entire cycle of activity. All shifts for each employee are indicated, indicating how many hours a particular employee worked in his family name. The document displays the time spent on transporting workers from the collection point to the shift and vice versa, and the period between shifts. The schedule manager is responsible for maintaining the schedule..
As already mentioned, the duration of a daily shift should not exceed 12 hours, while during work time is given for a break and lunch. Sometimes the shift increases to 14 hours a day, but no more than double. And the total time of employment at each enterprise is set individually. This is a continuous schedule of 10/10 (10 working days for 10 days of vacation), 14/14, 30/30, but no more than 60 days according to the law of the Russian Federation.
After the end of the working day, the time for rest comes. All the time that remains at the end of the working day can be considered as rest and the employee does not leave the territory of residence at the facility. The rest period between shifts is set individually at each enterprise, the employee leaves the territory of residence at the facility, such vacation periods are considered long – from 10 to 60 days.
Place of residence for shift workers
It is legally established that when sending workers on a shift, the employing company must provide them with housing or a place to live. When employing, we advise you to pay attention to what living conditions the employer offers. There were cases when this item was not discussed in the contract and the employee had to settle down at the duty station himself.
They are considered temporary housing, they are specially equipped for 1.5-2 years in the immediate vicinity of the work object. The construction of such buildings is optimal if the employer is not profitable to rent housing, the work object is located in a sparsely populated or remote place. The arrangement of the town involves not only the availability of residential apartments, but also household premises (a dining room, a first-aid post, a bathhouse, a shop, etc.) and the infrastructure should be developed.
The room must comply with sanitary standards and must be equipped with necessary furniture, household appliances, household equipment, bedding, and fire safety equipment. Carrying out communications – heating, sewage, water supply, lighting is a necessary norm. The material used in the construction of the villages is different – wood, sand blocks, slabs, but recently collapsible container blocks with connected communications have become popular.
Work without building a complex for living
Not every company can afford the construction of an autonomous shift camp with all communications and important infrastructure. Often an organization (especially a construction one) provides building trailers for living. Large enterprises allocate a hostel for several people or a separate building. If the company is located near the village, the institution can provide rental housing or pay rent.
The shift method of work differs from the usual one in some changes in wages. There are guaranteed allowances for a shift; housing is provided or paid separately; fare is paid on both sides based on the daily rate calculation. There are district (regional) allowances and payments for work in the Far North, additional paid holidays. Rotary taxation is calculated in the same way as other income..
There are several pay systems:
- piecework premium;
- salary system.
Payment of shift workers is made:
- Workmakers – for the volume of work performed at current rates and rates.
- Worker-time workers – for all actually worked hours, based on the calculation of the established tariff rates of the assigned categories.
- To foremen, foremen, shop managers (shifts) and other line (shop) personnel directly managing the facility (site) – for all the time actually worked according to the schedule (in hours) based on the established monthly salaries. The hourly rate of workers in these cases is determined by dividing the monthly official salary by the number of working hours according to the calendar of the settlement month.
- To other managers, specialists and employees working on a shift – for the actually worked time (in days) based on the established monthly salaries.
- Any action, circumstance that entailed a change in wages, is regulated by the legislator.
Summarized time tracking
It is used when, for various objective reasons, the working day or working week is not standardized. In this case, time records are kept in the schedule with the number of hours worked by a specific person. Salaries are charged for a certain period of time – for a week, for a month, for a half year. Either the hourly tariff rate or the monthly salary of a particular position is taken as the basis for the calculations. Accounting of working time is carried out by months and in general for the accounting period.
Allowances and surcharges
The size, procedure for paying the allowance is established by law and is based on the Labor Code (Article 302 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation), but there are some nuances. So, premiums are established, depending on funding (state, budget, private, and so on):
- The Government of the Russian Federation for employees of organizations funded by the federal budget.
- Bodies of local government and self-government for budget entities of the Russian Federation.
- Collective agreements, local acts and orders of organizations and trade unions for employees of organizations not financed from the budget.
- The size of the allowance is established by law (Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 51 of 03.02.2005) for budget organizations:
- in the Far North and equivalent regions – 75% of the tariff rate (salary);
- in Siberia and the Far East (and another similar climatic region) – 30% of the tariff rate (salary).
Compensation for irregular working hours
The law does not indicate that the employer must pay compensation for irregular working hours. Some organizations set such payments by issuing a local order and consider them as overtime. More often than not, overtime hours worked add hours or days to annual paid leave. This point, how irregular working days are compensated, what compensation is implied, should be discussed individually with each employer in advance.
Severe labor allowance
Workers who work in the Far North or in regions equated to it are entitled to a separate allowance. This allowance is not related to the shift method of work, that is, it is considered separately, regardless of what mode of work an employee of a particular organization is a compensation payment. The accrual of this allowance is regulated by the Labor Code of the Russian Federation.
Granting days of extra vacation
Employees working on a rotational basis are entitled to receive not only 28 days of annual paid leave, which the labor legislation provides, but can also count on additional paid leave if the worker works in the Far North (24 calendar days) or in the region, equivalent to it (16 calendar days).
Payment for inter-shift rest
Due to the fact that each day of the shift can be considered irregular, the objective inter-shift vacation is considered differently for each calendar day, and is compensated by the processed days and hours. Calculation Algorithm:
- Calculation of the normal number of working hours for the accounting period.
- Calculation of the number of working hours according to the schedule.
- Definition of the number of hours and the norm for processing or defectiveness in relation to the norms established by law.
- Establishing the number of hours and whole days that relate to shift days.
- The resulting processing in whole days is paid at the tariff rate or salary, and the hours are summed up among themselves and can accumulate and be transferred to another type of vacation as soon as enough hours are accumulated to receive additional days added to the vacation.
Advantages and disadvantages of shift work
Each work has its pros and cons. And the attitude towards them is different. We list both of them for the shift method of work:
- You can always find a job in your specialty in another city or region, while not planning a move.
- An important advantage is good pay and high earnings..
- Between the shifts there is a long vacation, which you can spend at your own discretion, because the money has been earned decently. Many vacation workers travel around the world..
- In the process, you can get new knowledge that will help in career advancement..
- Working in difficult conditions gives a number of advantages in the form of benefits and compensations. For example, you can retire early or benefit from housing.
- Free accommodation and meals. You can not spend the money you earned on providing for yourself, but save it for some needs and requirements.
- You can take a break from gadgets, although civilization has climbed into remote corners of Russia.
- The main disadvantage is extremely difficult and harmful physical work in difficult conditions, both climatic and psychological (“mixed-race” team – it is difficult to live and work in the same territory with the same people for a long time), moving to remote regions.
- Each person has their own approach and their own comfort zone, from which they will have to leave.
- A long and hard working day – 10-12 hours, and only one day off.
- Not every specialty is suitable for working on a shift (if not a laborer, but there is also a lower salary), but if the specialty is in demand (for example, in the field of geology), then you need to be a highly skilled and qualified specialist in your field.
- For weeks you live away from your family and home. Although distance and a test for feelings, but not many families can withstand a long separation from the head of the family.
- Living conditions are often marching, the lack of benefits of civilization and remote deployment. A person who is used to all the benefits of civilization will find it very difficult to adapt and deny himself everything.
- There is a possibility of cheating. Not all employers are crystal honest, it happens that the salary received does not at all correspond to the declared one or it is not paid at all. Therefore, the source of information about the vacancy must be verified and reliable and have at least one positive review. The conclusion of an employment contract is considered mandatory, the violation of which is punishable by law.
- In conclusion. Bad habits. They will have to be abandoned. For drinking alcohol and being drunk at many enterprises imposed penalties, up to dismissal without severance pay. Yes, and expensive. After all, there is no special assortment in stores.