The content of the article
- What is disciplinary action?
- Disciplinary sanctions under the Labor Code
- Disciplinary action
- Per employee
- Per serviceman
- On a public civil servant
- Procedure for the application of disciplinary sanctions
- Order of punishment
- Duration of disciplinary action
- Consequences of disciplinary action
After misconduct by employees of the enterprise or because of their improper performance of labor duties, the employer has the right to apply the penalties provided for by the Labor Code of the Russian Federation. Only one of the types of disciplinary action described in the Labor Code can be imposed on an employee. Such stringent measures are necessary for the team to maintain discipline and to properly perform their duties.
What is disciplinary action?
The obligation of the employee to be punished for violation of the rules of the organization in which he works, the terms of the job description or the employment contract is a disciplinary liability. According to the articles of the Labor Code, a misconduct by an employee will serve as the basis for disciplinary action, which proves neglect of his last official authority. Any punishment applied unlawfully may be appealed by the employee in court.
It is forbidden to apply disciplinary sanctions not provided for by federal laws, regulations or statutes on discipline. For non-fulfillment or improper fulfillment by an employee of his labor duties, the employer has the right to apply one of the following types of punishments:
Disciplinary sanctions under the Labor Code
The main disciplinary measures are described in article 192 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation. The grounds for holding an employee accountable are:
- non-fulfillment or dishonest performance by an employee of his work (duties are described in the employment contract);
- committing an action not authorized by the institution’s official regulatory documents;
- violation of the job description;
- non-observance of labor discipline (repeated lateness, absence from the workplace).
The most common form of liability for disciplinary offenses is a comment. He is pronounced for minor violations, that is, when the damage or violation of discipline does not have serious consequences. Such disciplinary punishment is imposed if the employee improperly performed his labor duties for the first time. To apply the remark, the employee must be familiar with his proper instructions when applying for a job. In this case, the document is certified by the signature of the employee.
Before drawing up a disciplinary order, the employer must request written explanations from the offender. The employee provides an explanatory note within 2 business days from the receipt of such a request (a special act is drawn up on which the employee signs the receipt). In the explanatory, he can provide the employer with evidence of his own innocence or indicate good reasons for the misconduct..
Since the Labor Code does not list which reasons are considered valid, it is up to the employer to decide. However, judicial and personnel practice shows that good reasons may include:
- lack of materials for work;
- violation of labor conditions by the employer.
If the employer considers the reason for the misconduct to be justified, he should not make a remark to the employee. In the absence of a valid reason, the institution’s management issues a disciplinary order in the form of a comment. On the document, the employee puts his signature, which indicates that he is familiar with the order. If the offender refuses to sign the paper, the employer draws up an act. The remark is valid for 1 year from the date of the misconduct, but it can be removed ahead of schedule:
- at the initiative of the employer;
- at the written request of the employee;
- at the request of the trade union body;
- at the request of the head of the structural unit.
The labor legislation does not provide an exhaustive list for which reprimands are made. However, in practice, disciplinary action is imposed on an employee because of the discovery of a misdemeanor of moderate gravity or for systematic minor violations. The list of disciplinary offenses for which the employee is charged:
- Ignoring Codex Standards. Penalties are declared for truancy, violation of the charter or TB, failure to perform official duties, etc..
- An action for which there is no legal liability, but acting as a binding element of industrial relations. For example, penalties are applied if an employee refuses to undergo a medical examination, training, etc..
- Creating a situation that subsequently caused damage to the property of the institution. An example is damage to material assets or their shortage. The collection process is carried out by issuing the relevant orders of the head. Punishment can be applied for six months from the date of detection of misconduct. After this period, penalties are unlawful..
As a rule, a reprimand follows as a second disciplinary sanction after a remark. According to the Labor Code of the Russian Federation, it is prohibited to apply two sanctions for one violation at once. In the process of legal proceedings, if any, the question first arises of applying a milder punishment to the employee. If the leader represented by the defendant is unable to provide evidence that the reprimand followed the remark, then the penalty will be charged.
Before issuing a reprimand order, a certain procedure must be followed. A severe reprimand is announced after the written documentation of the violation. To this end, the immediate superior of the employee must submit to the organization’s management a memo or a memo in which facts of non-compliance with the requirements will be described. The document must contain:
- date of event;
- circumstances of the violation;
- names of participants.
After this, the violator is invited to give a written explanation of his actions, while it is impossible to demand explanations from the employee (this is his right, not his duty, according to Articles 192 and 193 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation). A request for a written explanation within 2 weeks is set out in the notification, after which the document is brought to the violator under signature. The fact of a reprimand is entered into the personal file of the employee: this information is not displayed anywhere else, however, a disciplinary sanction can lead to the deprivation of bonuses and other incentives.
Even after imposing sanctions, the employee is able to correct the situation: if he does not break the rules for a year, the punishment is automatically removed. In addition, a reprimand may be withdrawn ahead of schedule, and a written application will be required from both the employee and the manager. Such a situation is possible only if the violator has a loyal attitude towards the internal investigation and if there is no refusal on his part to give explanations or sign acts.
This punishment is due to the high severity of the offense. Its imposition is a right, and not the duty of the leader, so it is likely that the offender will be forgiven, and the penalty will take a milder character. If the employer is determined, then for dismissal he should fix:
- several cases of groundless violations of the work schedule (lateness, failure to comply with orders / instructions, failure to fulfill duties on TD, evasion of training / examination, etc.);
- single gross misconduct (absence from work for more than 4 hours without legal grounds, drunkenness, disclosure of confidential information, misappropriation of other people’s property at work, etc.).
The procedure for bringing to disciplinary punishment is documented, it is important that the fact of violation was supported by written explanations of the eyewitnesses of the event, the act of theft, etc. An offender is asked for an explanation of the offense (it takes 2 days to complete it). The imposition of a penalty should be executed in the form of an order, a copy of which is given to the employee for review. Based on this document, a dismissal order is created..
The dismissed employee is paid (salary and compensation for unused vacation). An appropriate entry is made in the work book (the types of disciplinary sanctions must be indicated). The rules that the employer must observe when dismissing an employee:
- after the discovery of the grounds for dismissal, the manager must recover within a month or from the moment the court decision comes in based on the results of the consideration of the violation;
- it is forbidden to dismiss a person during a vacation or during a period of disability;
- before applying the punishment, an explanation must be requested from the offender.
For the organization to function normally and bring the expected results, it needs to maintain discipline. If an employee does not comply with it and goes unpunished, a chain reaction occurs (the rest also begin to disrupt order). The initial punishment may be a warning or an educational conversation. If such a measure does not bring the desired result, more serious penalties can be applied that encourage the employee to stay within the permissible limits. For this, different types of disciplinary punishments under Art. 192 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation.
The grounds for punishment are violations committed by him, for example, improper performance of labor functions or their non-fulfillment, non-observance of the work schedule (failure to appear, lateness), violation of discipline, ignoring the requirements for training or medical examination, property crimes (theft, damage, etc.). Possible consequences of a perfect misconduct:
- reprimand or severe reprimand;
Like employees of non-security organizations, the military is obliged to comply with the rules prescribed by it, for the violation of which sanctions are described in the regulatory enactments. Discipline violators can be held liable within the time allowed by law and subject to legal grounds. The main document regulating the rights and obligations of military personnel is Law No. 76 of 1998. According to him, responsibility for misconduct lies not only with contract soldiers or military conscripts, but also with civilians called up for training.
Depending on the gravity of the violation, the rules of the Criminal or Administrative Codes will apply to the military. For violation of the charter, the culprit may be brought to disciplinary liability, and sometimes the misconduct contains an administrative offense. However, during the execution of sanctions not the rules of the AK, but Law No. 76 will be relevant..
Military discipline can be violated by such types of misconduct:
- intentional (the culprit realized what he was doing and could foresee the consequences);
- careless (the offender did not understand the consequences of his actions);
- minor (action / inaction that did not cause serious harm to the order or to third parties, for example, being late, violating the regime of a military unit, etc.).
Decree No. 145 contains a list of gross disciplinary violations. These include:
- leaving the territory of a military unit without permission;
- non-statutory relationships;
- absence from the place of service for more than 4 hours without a good reason;
- failure to appear at the due date (from vacation / business trip, etc.);
- failure to appear on the draft board;
- violation of the order of the guard, border service, combat duty, patrolling, etc .;
- improper handling of ammunition / equipment / weapons;
- embezzlement, damage, illegal use of property of a military unit;
- damage to property / employees of a military unit;
- being in the state of alcohol or other intoxication;
- violation of traffic rules or rules of driving a car / other equipment;
- inaction of the commander to prevent misconduct by subordinates.
The following can serve as disciplinary punishments for violation of military rules:
- reprimand or severe reprimand;
- deprivation of a breastplate;
- deprivation of dismissal;
- dismissal from service before the expiration of the contract;
- expulsion from a military educational institution, from fees;
- disciplinary arrest of 45 or longer days.
On a public civil servant
The punishments of civil servants are not fundamentally different from those generally accepted. Nevertheless, the Labor Code of the Russian Federation takes into account Law on Public Service No. 79-ФЗ, which provides for an increase in employee liability measures several times, since the status of a state executor requires compliance with restrictions / prohibitions, anti-corruption legislation.
Section 57 of the Federal Law describes four types of disciplinary sanctions that are imposed on public servants. These include:
The reason for punishment can be not only lateness or absenteeism, but also failure to perform official duties or their improper implementation. The only condition is that all the duties of the person must first be agreed in the job description and agreed with the employee under signature. The most serious disciplinary sanction of a civil servant is dismissal, which can be applied only in cases established by law (Article 37 of the Law N 79-FZ):
- repeated failure to fulfill official duties without a good reason;
- a single gross violation of official duties (absenteeism, alcohol or other intoxication at the workplace, disclosure of classified information, theft of other people’s property, embezzlement of funds, etc.);
- the adoption by civil servants working in the “managers” category of an unjustified decision that entailed a violation of the safety of property, damage to property, its unlawful use, etc .;
- one-time serious violation by civil servants working in the “managers” category of their official duties, which resulted in harm to a state agency or violation of the legislation of the Russian Federation.
Procedure for the application of disciplinary sanctions
Attraction to disciplinary punishment is a sequential procedure, which consists of several stages. These include:
- Drawing up a document evidencing the discovery of misconduct (report, act, etc.).
- A request from the culprit for a written explanation indicating the reasons for his act. If the manager receives a refusal or the employee does not submit a document within 2 days, this fact is recorded through a special act.
- The employer makes a decision on guilt and chooses a measure of punishment for the employee who committed the offense. To do this, evaluate all available materials, take into account circumstances that may mitigate guilt. Lack of evidence does not entitle the manager to any disciplinary action.
- Creation of an order for the imposition and subsequent execution of sentences. Only one disciplinary sanction may be given to an employee for one misconduct.
Order of punishment
The document must contain full information about the employee, including his position, place of work, the fact of a violation with reference to existing regulatory documents, a description of the violation, the type of penalty imposed and the grounds for this. The finished order is given for review to the culprit, who must sign it within 3 business days. If an employee refuses to do this, an appropriate act is drawn up in accordance with Part 6 of Art. 193 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation.
Duration of disciplinary action
The punishment is valid until its withdrawal, which may occur as a result of the dismissal of the employee. In this case, only the remark or reprimand can be removed from the culprit (provided that the labor relationship between the employee and the employer is continued). Moreover, the removal of disciplinary action occurs in two cases, according to article 194 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation:
- automatically a year after the entry into force of the punishment order;
- by early withdrawal at the initiative of the direct chief / head of the union or the employee himself.
Since the decision on recovery is determined by the employer, the early lifting of the sanction must also be coordinated with the management. Automatic exemption from collection occurs without any documentary formalities. In this case, the trade union or immediate supervisor must draw up a petition addressed to the head of the enterprise (the document does not have a mandatory form). The paper contains information about the head of the enterprise, employee / team, who initiated the application, a reasoned request to cancel the punishment, the date and signature of the persons who made the document.
If the employee has not committed the wrongdoing repeatedly, after the calendar year the disciplinary violation is removed. The director of the institution may liquidate the sanction before the end of this period, if the employee has realized his own guilt and corrected himself. The manager makes this decision:
- at the request of the team;
- at the request of the employee;
Consequences of disciplinary action
According to Article 81 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation, if a second decision is identified before the end of the sanction, the employer has the right to dismiss the offender. In addition, during a disciplinary action, the head of the organization may deprive the employee of any incentive payments (bonuses, bonuses), provided that it is provided for by local regulatory documents of an institution such as a charter, etc. The employee has the right to appeal the penalty with the help of a labor inspection or court.