The content of the article
- What is unemployment benefit?
- Unemployed status and conditions for obtaining it
- Legal regulation
- Who is eligible to receive
- Labor Exchange Payments
- During what period are paid
- How much pay
- Payout amount
- The procedure for determining the average daily earnings
- Subsidies to previously employed persons in the first year
- Second year subsidies
- Conditions for Moscow
- When payments stop
- In what cases payments are temporarily suspended while maintaining the status
- How to make out
- Where to go
- What documents are needed
The statistics say that 63% of Russian citizens are unemployed or receive a “black” salary, and only 16% of them are officially recognized as unemployed. 54% of the number of people registered with employment agencies are women aged 31 to 50 years. The government, in order to reduce stress on the labor market, decided to provide unemployed unemployment benefits in 2018, the maximum amount of which will be 4900 rubles.
What is unemployment benefit?
Citizens who are not able to get a job and who are registered at the employment center can apply for material assistance. Unemployment benefits in 2018 will not be indexed. It decreases after a certain period of time. The size of the regional rate and the seniority of a specialist affect the size of the unemployment subsidy..
Representatives of some departments believe that individuals discredit this type of social payments as a phenomenon, because try to get it as long as possible. Officials insist on the introduction of a full-fledged retraining system based on employment centers, which would reduce the cost of retraining specialists.
Unemployed status and conditions for obtaining it
Unemployed are recognized as able-bodied citizens who do not have regular earnings or work. Previously, they must register with the employment service to find a suitable vacancy and demonstrate their willingness to start a suitable job. Employment center employees sometimes reject requests for people with disabilities to receive material assistance, as confuse the concept of disability and legal capacity. If a person is able to carry out his duties, he can register with the labor exchange regardless of his health.
According to Article 34 of the Law of the Russian Federation of 04.19.1991 “On Employment”, all citizens officially recognized as unemployed can receive unemployment benefits in 2018. An individual can apply for a job that will suit him in terms of qualifications, working conditions, health status, transport accessibility. For example, if a citizen received 15,000 rubles at a previous job, then an employee of the labor exchange must select him vacancies with a salary of at least 9500 rubles.
Unemployed residents who have lost the right to receive subsidies can apply for material assistance. You can get it by retraining in the direction of the employment service or after 36 months from the date of registration of the status of unemployed. By law, individuals under the age of 30 can take advantage of retraining benefits. These include reimbursement of expenses for public transport, expenses for medicines (provided upon availability of a certificate from the hospital).
Who is eligible to receive
Any citizen of Russia who has reached the age of 16 years without permanent or temporary income can register with the labor exchange and register as unemployed. Girls in the decree cannot use this right, because they relate to the temporarily disabled population. A woman will be able to obtain unemployed status after a child reaches 1.5 years. Unemployment benefits are not paid to the following categories of residents:
- under the age of 16;
- full-time students;
- individuals with the status of an individual entrepreneur;
- persons with disabilities classified as disabled;
- individuals who decide to apply at the place of temporary registration;
- convicted by a court decision to corrective labor;
- persons who provided false information on recognition of their unemployment.
Labor Exchange Payments
The allowance is charged to the citizen every month from the moment he received unemployment status. Persons who have lost their jobs due to the liquidation of the company, the termination of IP activities or due to a reduction in the staff of employees cannot use this privilege. According to article No. 178 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation (Labor Code of the Russian Federation), such citizens retain an average salary for a period of job search of 2 months, and then they will be able to receive a subsidy, like other unemployed.
Every 14 days, a specialist will receive requests for re-registration. React when they are received should be quick, because if an individual does not regularly confirm his status, the provision of material assistance is terminated. To resume payments, an unemployed employee will have to fill out an application again and collect the entire package of documents.
During what period are paid
Material unemployment assistance begins to accrue from the first day a specialist is recognized as unemployed. The procedure for paying unemployment benefits in 2018 will not undergo any major changes. With early retirement, the unemployed loses the subsidy. A specialist will not be able to become a member of the state program to combat unemployment if he works part-time or has a temporary part-time job.
The subsidy is paid for 2 years. After 7-12 months, a six-month break occurs. If the specialist did not find work after this time, he should contact his supervisor from the employment center. After the official appeal, payments will resume for 7-8 months, and then again a half-year break will come. After that, the subsidy will be transferred to the account of an individual for 4-5 months.
How much pay
When calculating the amount of unemployment benefits, three-month earnings at the last place of work are taken into account. In total, before dismissal, an individual must work for at least 26 weeks. If a citizen worked part-time, then first the employees of the center recalculate working hours. With a total amount of less than 1040 hours, the specialist is assigned a minimum benefit amount of 850 r. An exception are orphans. The first 6 months they are paid benefits equal to the average regional salary.
Minimum and maximum size
The amount of payments is determined by the position and seniority of the employee. The maximum unemployment benefit is 4,900 rubles, which is 2 times lower than the cost of living. For 3 years, the government has been considering petitions to increase the value of this subsidy, but so far no additional funds have been allocated from the state budget to achieve this goal. The minimum size subsidy is 850 rubles. It is installed:
- first-time job seekers graduates and students;
- Those wishing to find a job after a long break;
- persons who have worked less than 26 weeks per year;
- specialists who were dismissed by decision of the union for violation of labor discipline.
An orphan child is entitled to receive increased unemployment benefits in 2018. It is equal to the average monthly salary established in the region where the citizen resides. The relevant changes were made to Federal Law No. 89 and begin to operate on 05/01/2018. Financial support will be provided to the orphan continuously for 6 months. If during this time the specialist does not find work, then the amount of the allowance automatically decreases to 850 p. For people with disabilities, unemployment benefits are calculated like ordinary specialists.
The amount of unemployment benefits in 2018 directly depends on the size of the citizen’s salary at the previous place of work. At the federal level, its value cannot exceed 4900 r, but in some areas of the country there are district coefficients. In these regions, unemployment benefits will be greater than those established by law. The subsidy in 2018 will continue to accrue as a percentage of wages if the following conditions are met:
- a citizen has worked for at least 26 weeks under an employment contract;
- less than 1 year has passed since the dismissal;
- the cause of job loss is not the unlawful actions of a citizen (appropriation of property, violation of labor discipline, etc.).
Average earnings are calculated on the basis of information for 3 months provided by a citizen. The resulting amount is multiplied by the district coefficient. For example, in Buryatia it is 1.3. If the subsidy is 900 r, then when multiplied, it will increase to 1170 r. It so happens that the amount of material assistance according to the calculations of employees of the employment center turned out to be 10,000 rubles. An unemployed specialist will not be able to receive a payment of this magnitude, because according to the law, the maximum subsidy is 4,900 r.
The procedure for determining the average daily earnings
Features of the calculation of benefits are described in the resolution of the Ministry of Labor of the Russian Federation of 08/12/2003. When determining the average daily earnings, both the basic salary and other types of payments from the employer are taken into account. Compensation based on the results of one calendar year is calculated not taking into account the full amount, but in the amount of 1/12 for each month of work. When calculating the average salary, information is taken for the 90 days preceding the dismissal. When calculating benefits, in addition to salary, take into account:
- allowances for long service and other labor achievements;
- Extra income from overtime
- bonuses and fees;
- in-kind salary.
Subsidies to previously employed persons in the first year
One of the prerequisites for increasing the size of the subsidy is the presence of a continuous professional experience with the specialist for 12 months until the moment of dismissal. The payment of unemployment benefits in 2018 will not change under this item. The first 3 months, the specialist will receive 75% of the average monthly income, and the next 4 months – 60%. After this time period, a semi-annual break in payments often occurs, and then for 5 months a specialist is charged 45% of his salary.
Second year subsidies
In the second 12-month period, the citizen receives a minimum subsidy multiplied by the district coefficient. For example, in Moscow this figure is 1.7, and the amount of monthly material assistance will be 2890 rubles. After the second year, the citizen will be deprived of the subsidy provided. The total period of provision of material assistance may not exceed 24 months when considering 36 calendar months.
Conditions for Moscow
The amount of payments is determined by the average citizen’s earnings for 3 months. In Moscow, the unemployment benefit in 2018 will be increased, because the regional coefficient is the highest among all cities in Russia. A similar indicator in calculating payments is used by the authorities of St. Petersburg. Moscow unemployed will be able to take advantage of transportation benefits. They will additionally pay extra 1,190 p. The maximum amount of social benefits will be 6940 r, and the minimum – 2890 r.
After applying to the Department of Labor and Social Protection of the population, a citizen will receive unemployed status for 11 days from the date of submission of all documents. The first 10 days, together with the employees of the employment center, he studies the list of current vacancies. With an unpopular specialty, an individual will be offered retraining. If in 10 days the search for a place of study or work is unsuccessful, then the citizen is assigned the status of unemployed and begin to accrue benefits.
When payments stop
After official employment, a citizen ceases to receive unemployment benefits. Upon registration of the fact of death of an individual, the payment of material assistance shall cease. If a citizen has not come to the employment center for more than 1 month, then the state will stop transferring money. An employment center may refuse to provide unemployment benefits if:
- a citizen is serving a criminal sentence;
- an individual was sentenced to correctional labor;
- when a citizen undergoes official vocational training or additional education with the payment of regular cash benefits;
- when an individual provides false information about himself;
- refusal of a citizen to help state authorities in finding a job.
In what cases payments are temporarily suspended while maintaining the status
When a citizen leaves the place of residence in connection with retraining or advanced training at vocational education institutions, money will not be credited to his account. During recruitment and compulsory military service, individuals do not provide benefits, because maintenance of military personnel is paid by the state. The restriction applies to maternity leave. For up to 3 months, payments are suspended if:
- a citizen refused 2 suitable job options while on the labor exchange;
- an individual refused to reprofile or to participate in community service;
- the unemployed was dismissed from his last job for violation of labor discipline and other actions indicated in article 35 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation;
- the citizen was expelled from the place of retraining;
- an individual arbitrarily left training from a job center.
How to make out
The first step of any person who decides to obtain official unemployed status will be to contact the employment center at the place of registration. An authorized employee of the department will give the unemployed a form for processing an application and a list of documents that must be submitted in order to receive material assistance. After receiving all the certificates, an individual can repeatedly contact the employee of the employment center.
An employee of the department will record the fact of filing documents, and then offer the citizen several options for work. The emphasis in the search for vacancies should be made by the labor exchange employee on the education, qualifications and work experience of a person. For example, if an engineer is offered to get a job as a cook, he has the right to refuse such an offer. Often employees are sent for retraining, and then they are looking for suitable vacancies. If all of the above activities did not help with finding a job, then the specialist is assigned the status of unemployed.
Where to go
Employment centers are in every region of Russia. A citizen who wants to officially become unemployed must come there. A specialist working with an unemployed population will issue an individual a list of documents that will need to be collected in order to receive benefits. You can become a participant in the state program only at the place of permanent registration. If the specialist is registered in Khabarovsk, but is located on a temporary residence permit in Moscow, then he must return to his hometown and look for work there.
What documents are needed
Registration of the status of unemployed takes 11 days. In 2018, an individual who is declared unemployed can receive unemployment benefits. An unemployed person can spend money on utility bills or on his own food. The decision to register a person as unemployed and to pay monetary compensation is made on the basis of the following documents:
- completed application;
- a work book or a document that replaces it;
- diploma of education and other documents confirming the qualifications of a potential employee;
- certificate of average earnings for 3 months from the last place of work;
- SNILS (insurance number of an individual personal account);
- TIN (individual taxpayer number);
- bank account number for crediting money.