Vacation at own expense at the initiative of the employee or employer – grounds and procedure for providing

The content of the article

In the life of many people, situations arise when, due to circumstances, a person needs several days of dismissal from work, for example, at a relative’s funeral. In this case, it is recommended to take leave at your own expense without saving wages, especially since this method is provided for by the Labor Code of the Russian Federation. There are situations when a break from work is at the discretion of the employer, but there are situations when, according to the law, he cannot refuse an employee.

What is non-pay leave

In accordance with the law, every person who has worked in the organization for six months or more has the right to a vacation period. It is provided on schedule and has a minimum duration of 28 days. A completely different thing is vacation without pay. The need for it can arise in unexpected cases (for example, if a close relative dies) or in situations that are not well combined with work (wedding, diploma defense). If these reasons are considered valid, the employee can count on free days..

At the initiative of the employer

According to the current legislation, leave at one’s own expense is granted only on the basis of an application where the reasons for this are indicated (or without indicating if this type of vacation is a priori assumed). If such rest is not required by law, then the employer’s further actions may depend on the seriousness of the reasons indicated by the employee.

The boss is talking with an employee

By agreement of the parties, the length of the period is determined, but in some situations (for example, a critical shortage of personnel), the director may not let the employee go. In this case, the leader’s initiative is to approve the vacation itself, but he may not provide it.

This type of vacation should not be confused with administrative unpaid leave at the initiative of the employer, to which people are sent forcibly with a decrease in the volume of tasks at the enterprise. If there is no voluntary consent, then this is a violation of federal laws and entails a fine for officials. It is legislatively correct to draw up such a period as simple, during which employees receive no less than 2/3 of their salary.

At the initiative of the employee

Writing a statement, in fact, is an initiative of an employee of the enterprise, and if the provision of a kind of vacation is provided for by law, the employer has no right to refuse. For example, the provision of leave at your own expense cannot be rejected if the reason confirmed by an official document is:

  • marriage registration of the applicant;
  • death of a close relative;
  • having children.

Who has the right

According to the law, everyone working at the enterprise has the right to such a break in work (but, in some situations, the manager may not approve the initiative, explaining this by the need to perform official duties). To provide rest, it is necessary to submit an application addressed to the director, if necessary, indicating the reasons and attaching copies of the relevant documents (certificates from the kindergarten about quarantine).

Legal regulation

The human right to such a break from work is based on the Labor Code of the Russian Federation (Article 128). It says that leave at your own expense is provided:

  • by decision of the organization’s management, when considering the reason, the employer has no objection;
  • in cases established by law (for example, own wedding) – in such a situation, the director can no longer refuse.

People discuss documents

For certain categories of citizens, the law defines the right to additional rest without saving a salary. For example, Federal Law No. 5 of January 9, 1997 guarantees up to three weeks of vacation at your own expense at a convenient time:

  • full holders of the Order of Labor Glory;
  • Heroes of Socialist Labor;
  • To the Heroes of Labor of the Russian Federation.

Minimum and maximum duration

If vacation time is provided by agreement between the employee and the employer, the duration of such a period is regulated by agreement of the parties. The law does not mention this (with the exception of state and municipal employees, for which the maximum period cannot last more than a year), but the minimum amount in all cases will be a day at its own expense. For those to whom this type of vacation is guaranteed by law, a duration is established, but if necessary, they can turn to the management for new days..

Reasons for a 5-day vacation

The provision of free days due to family circumstances is regulated by law. As the reasons why the head cannot refuse a five-day break, the Labor Code gives the following:

  • birth of a child;
  • death of a close relative;
  • own marriage.

Additional reasons, which may include exams when obtaining a second higher education, a serious illness of a relative, etc., are established by the collective agreement of the organization and other local regulations. In all other cases, the provision of rest in case of personal problems will be at the discretion of management, and the corresponding visa on the application means the written consent of the director.

Working disabled

Considering persons who must be provided with rest at their own expense, in article 128 the Labor Code also speaks of working disabled people. For such persons, the maximum vacation time is set to 60 days, so the provision of 5-day leave will go on the same basis – a person prepares an application and receives the set rest time.

Senior Citizens

The Labor Code also provides for unpaid leave at the initiative of a person who belongs to the category of working pensioners. Such people are entitled to two weeks at their own expense annually – this right is guaranteed by the Labor Code, therefore it should not cause objections from the head. If for some reason the director refuses this vacation, then the labor inspection can solve the problem.

Working pensioners


In accordance with the norms of the law (Article 286 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation), another part-time vacation is provided simultaneously with the vacation period at the main job. In this case, a situation may arise when the main place of rest will be longer than guaranteed by law for 28 days – in this case, the employee needs to calculate additional days without saving.

When combining work with training

The provision of study leave is also regulated by applicable law (Articles 173, 174 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation). In this case, a break is granted:

  • for admission to entrance examinations;
  • during exams at a higher or secondary special educational institution;
  • for the preparation of the thesis and passing the state examinations.

In what cases is the employer obligated to provide unpaid leave

The law provides for several categories of employees who can count on the provision of a vacation period at a time convenient for them. In this case, the basis for making the rest is a statement addressed to the director of the organization, according to which he is obliged to provide a certain number of days to the employee. Scroll:

Employee category

The maximum duration of the provided vacation time, the number of calendar days

Disabled people


The participants of the Great Patriotic War


Admitted to entrance examinations in universities


Students of preparatory departments (for passing final exams),


Full-time students in secondary vocational schools (or universities) in the case of intermediate certification

10 (or 15), with the target direction from the employer – 40-50 days depending on the course

They are for passing state exams


They are for preparing a diploma and passing state exams

2 (or 4) months

Senior citizens


Parents or wives (husbands) of persons in the status of military personnel who died in the service (or due to an illness received during its passage)



In the amount missing before the length of rest in the main place

Workers in the Far North and equivalent regions

Time required to get to the place of rest and back

Having two or more children under 14 years old


Raising a disabled child


Single parents


People’s squad


Participants of voluntary fire protection units


Trustees of a political party or candidate

For the period of authority

Members of the Election Commission for Local Government Elections

For the period of authority

Candidates for Deputies

From the day of registration to the day of the official announcement of election results

How to take at your own expense

If you have good reason, or under the law you are entitled to this type of exemption from work, then you need to contact the head of the organization. The sequence of actions for those wishing to take rest (time off) at their own expense should be as follows:

  1. Prepare an application by hand (if necessary, indicating the reasons why you need to be relieved of work) or on a form developed by the organization.
  2. Submit an application for approval to the manager. It is very important to get approval, because the mere fact of submitting an application is not enough, and your failure to appear at work can lead to disciplinary action up to dismissal.
  3. Another important step is issuing a director’s order. An employee is introduced to this document by signature. After the order is issued, the vacation period is valid..
  4. If necessary, early exit from such long-term and short-term holidays is allowed, with the recount of days when the employee was free from work. The initiative to end the break is wholly owned by the applicant.

In the personnel department

Vacation application without content

Since there is no legislatively approved form of applications for this type of exemption from labor duties, this document is compiled in free form. It must include:

  • surname of the director and applicant;
  • reasons why the employee needs this time;
  • legislative grounds;
  • date signature.

Documents confirming the basis for preferential leave

In order for the reason why you ask to be dismissed from work to be understood by the manager, documentary evidence must be attached to the application. Depending on the situation, this may be a copy of the certificate / certificate:

  • the death of a close relative;
  • about marriage from the registry office;
  • about the birth of a child from the hospital.

Executive order

After the director of the company has approved the application, a special order is issued for this employee, according to which, on the indicated dates, he is relieved of work. The absence of an order in the form No. T-6 on leave at his own expense, which the employee gets acquainted with under his signature, upon unauthorized retirement provides an opportunity for the personnel service to apply punitive measures (and formally gives the right to dismiss for absenteeism).

Accountant marks in personal card and time sheet

Information on the provision of rest is recorded in the employee’s personal card (form No. T-2), as well as in coded form in the timesheet (No. T-12 or T-13). The mark in the report card depends on the circumstances in which he receives vacation time. The following conventions apply:

  • OD – the conditions are provided for by the legislation of the Russian Federation;
  • DO – by permission of the employer;
  • UD – in connection with training;
  • DB – annual additional vacation.

Can they go on vacation without paying for downtime

If an employee cannot be carried out due to the fault of the employer, then by law this period is called downtime and is paid at the rate of not less than 2/3 of average earnings (article 157 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation). To send employees on vacation at their own expense in such a situation is a violation of labor law and, in accordance with article 5.27 of the Code of Administrative Offenses, is subject to a fine. The size of this sanction is:

  • for the head of the organization – a warning or a fine of 1000-5000 rubles (in case of repeated violation – up to 20 000 p., for officials disqualification up to three years is allowed);
  • for organizations – a fine of 30,000-50000 rubles (for repeated violation – up to 70,000 p.).

Labor Code of the Russian Federation

What affects the provision of leave without pay to the employee

When an employee receives an exemption from work at his own expense, he is not charged a salary, but he is listed as an employee of the enterprise. It follows that the duration of a break in work can affect indicators related to the determination of income and length of service. This data may be needed, for example, for calculating sick leave benefits..

Work experience

It is important for a person that the total duration of non-working breaks without saving earnings for a year does not exceed two weeks, because only this period is counted in the length of service (for example, this indicator is used to determine the right to an annual basic paid vacation). Time beyond this period is deducted from the experience, which means that if the total amount of time off is 3 weeks, then 21-14 = 7 days will be deducted from the experience.

Disability Allowance

To determine the amount of compulsory social insurance benefits, it is necessary to calculate the average daily earnings for the previous two years. It is important not to forget that according to article 113 of the Labor Code, non-working holidays are excluded from the calculation, so vacation time from May 1 to May 15 will not contain 15, but only 13 days (minus May 1 and 9).

Calculation of average earnings

Such a calculation is based on the correct determination of the billing period, from which, along with days of inactivity or sick days, rest days at one’s expense are excluded. This is beneficial for a particular employee, because the income received by him is distributed over a smaller number of days, giving as a result a larger indicator (for example, paid vacation pay).

Pension insurance experience

The calculations of the insurance period upon retirement are similar to the calculation for calculating the hours worked for the provision of the annual basic paid rest. If the total vacation time is less than 14 days, then this period is included in the length of service, if it exceeds this range, the difference should be deducted. For example, an employee used 6 weeks to defend her diploma and pass state exams, which means she will be deducted 42 – 14 = 28 days.

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