The content of the article
- What is a seniority for retirement
- General insurance
- Special retirement experience
- What experience is taken into account when calculating a retirement pension
- What is included in the insurance period
- Experience under special working conditions
- Retirement Conditions
- Early retirement regardless of age and length of service
- Social reasons for receiving a pension ahead of schedule
- How many years do you need to work to get a pension
- To establish old-age insurance benefits
- To assign a pension to the state security
- Minimum length of service for an old-age pension
- The procedure for calculating seniority
- Boost Odds
- What periods are not taken into account
- Pension in the absence of insurance experience
In order for the state to start paying you a pension, reaching a certain age is not enough. In addition, the Russian pension legislation is not ideal and is constantly undergoing changes. For this reason, ordinary citizens are interested in what should be the experience for retirement, taking into account the latest changes, as well as the difference between work and insurance experience.
What is a seniority for retirement
Under the length of service, it is customary to understand the total duration of labor, social, entrepreneurial and other activities in accordance with the law. On the basis of these data, vacation pay, wage increases, pension and other payments are calculated. It is customary to distinguish three types of work experience:
- insurance. For accounting, the time taken during which insurance contributions to the Pension Fund were deducted is taken. Contributions are paid by the employer from each transfer of funds to the employee during the entire labor activity.
- continuous. The concept includes employment in one organization. You can maintain a continuous experience working in different organizations, but the break between a change of employment should not exceed one month.
- special. Accounting for hours worked within the framework of a certain labor activity.
An insurance period is the time when a citizen made contributions to the FIU, while he could work both in Russia and abroad, if this does not contradict the law and international treaties. In addition, taking into account the latest changes, the total length of service includes the time of military service, temporary disability and the period of care for a child up to one and a half years. If you received unemployment benefits, you can also count on the inclusion of this time in the insurance period..
Special retirement experience
If you have seniority, some people have the right to early retirement on well-deserved rest or for calculating pension payments. The concept of special experience means the performance of a certain activity for a certain time in a certain area and in a certain profession. This type includes, for example, employment in the Far North, pedagogical activities, work underground and other difficult working conditions.
In view of the recent changes, the length of service for retirement is considered continuous when a person worked all the time in one place. If he moved from one place to another, the general experience can also be considered continuous, but subject to certain requirements. Firstly, the break between work shifts should not be more than a month, and upon dismissal of their own free will – no more than three weeks.
Only here there is one “but”: upon dismissal of your own free will, you need to work at least 12 months in the next place. A premature reason for dismissal should be respectful – reduction, termination of the contract, etc., but not dismissal under the article or the termination of employment relations at will. In this case, the seniority will be considered interrupted..
What experience is taken into account when calculating a retirement pension
Until 2002, pension payments were accrued depending on how many years a person worked. For women, this indicator was equal to 20 years, and for men – 25. For each additional year, a surcharge was charged. In connection with the reforms and taking into account the latest changes in the legislation, the length of service for calculating the pension no longer plays the main role, since insurance is taken for calculation. Today, the amount of pension payments depends on transfers made by the FIU and the timing of their payment..
What is included in the insurance period
In addition to deductions to the Pension Fund, there are a number of “non-insurance periods” when time will be counted in the length of service, but only if the person was officially employed before and after that. These include:
- maternity leave with 1, 2, 3 and 4 children until they reach one and a half years, but in total no more than six years;
- work in the bodies of the border service, internal affairs and the federal service for the execution of sentences;
- military service or equivalent to it;
- illness, resulting in temporary disability;
- participation in public and social work;
- later proved unfounded imprisonment and imprisonment;
- receiving unemployment benefits;
- care for relatives over 80 years old, children, people with disabilities;
- spouse of a person who is in military or public service outside the Russian Federation or at the place of service, but who does not have the opportunity to find a job.
Experience under special working conditions
Given the latest changes, in order to receive special pension, a man must work at least 10 in special working conditions, and a woman of 7 years. However, this will not be enough if the total length of service is less than 20 years for the stronger sex and 15 for the weaker. Special working conditions include:
- harmful employment;
- employment in difficult conditions;
- work in special professions;
- work in the Far North or equivalent areas.
Each person independently decides when he wants to go on a well-deserved rest, but for this it is necessary to observe certain requirements. Given the latest legislative changes, the main indicators are:
- reaching a certain age. If a person worked under normal conditions, the law sets a threshold of 60 years for men and 55 years for women. When working with special conditions, this indicator decreases to 55 and 50 years..
- general work experience. The minimum indicator for the stronger sex is 25 years, and the weak – 20.
- Mandatory retirement insurance. A person applying for a pension must be insured and pay contributions to the Pension Fund.
Early retirement regardless of age and length of service
For all categories of citizens, the requirement for a minimum length of service is unconditional. On the other hand, there are certain individuals who may qualify for early assignment of pension payments, regardless of the number of years and length of service. These include people who worked in mines and mines, rescue workers of emergency services, medical workers, people who worked on vessels of the fishing industry, etc. The main criterion for retirement is the length of labor.
Social reasons for receiving a pension ahead of schedule
Taking into account the latest changes, some people who have a certain insurance period, on social grounds, can apply for early payments. These include:
- mothers with many children;
- visually impaired and who became them due to military trauma;
- persons who worked in the Far North.
In addition, unemployed people of pre-retirement age, and citizens who are registered with the Employment Center, but not earlier than 2 years before retirement age, can go on vacation earlier than the generally established age..
How many years do you need to work to get a pension
Many citizens are waiting for pension payments, so they are interested in what is the minimum length of service for a pension in Russia today, taking into account the latest changes. Since the legislation in the field of pension reforms is constantly undergoing changes, it is necessary to monitor the changes constantly in order to ensure at least a small but stable income in old age..
To establish old-age insurance benefits
If you turn to the law “On insurance pensions”, you can make sure that men leave for a well-deserved rest at the age of 60, and women – at 55. There you can also see that the insurance experience for going on an old-age vacation depends on certain requirements. In addition, a disability insurance pension is granted in the presence of any length of service, regardless of the time and reasons for the onset of disability. The same requirements are inherent for the calculation of payments due to the loss of the breadwinner.
To assign a pension to the state security
From the federal budget, pension money is allocated:
- for length of service: federal state civil servants, astronauts, military personnel and persons equated with them, flight test personnel;
- on disability: those affected by industrial or radiation disasters, astronauts, military personnel and persons equated with them, participants in the Second World War, and flight test personnel;
- in case of loss of a breadwinner: families of military personnel, flight test personnel and astronauts;
- in old age: those affected by industrial or radiation disasters;
- social benefits: children with disabilities (including by birth), people with disabilities, people who are not entitled to an insurance pension.
To receive pension payments from the federal authorities, the requirements are presented only to the total length of service:
- for federal public servants since 2019 it is 15.5 years (from 2019 – 16.5 years);
- for astronauts and pilots – 25 years for men or 20 – for women;
- military personnel is established in accordance with the law of the Russian Federation of 12.02.1993 No. 4468-1 on the pension provision of these persons;
- liquidators – 5 years;
- disabled – no requirements.
Minimum length of service for an old-age pension
Until recently, the minimum insurance period for an old-age pension was 5 years, but taking into account the latest changes since 2015, the calculation was as follows:
- from 01.01.2015, the minimum is 6 years;
- from 01.01.2016 he rose to 7 years;
- from 01.01.2017 it takes 8 years;
- from 01.01.2018 will be 9 years old.
In this way, until 2024, it is planned to gradually increase this indicator to 15 years. If the value at the time of going on a well-deserved rest is less, a person will be assigned a social pension, to which an additional payment will go up to the subsistence level of the region where he lives.
The procedure for calculating seniority
In accordance with the Federal Law “On Labor Pensions in the Russian Federation”, each insured person must be assessed for his pension rights, and the number of years does not affect this indicator. Evaluation of pension rights takes place in two stages, based on the worked period of employment: until January 1, 2015 and after. In the first case, the calculation takes place with the application of the calculation rules in force then and taking into account the preferential order. In the second, the procedure for calculating length of service is regulated by the provisions of Law No. 400-ФЗ On Insurance Pensions..
When there are no special conditions, the service is calculated in calendar order. However, taking into account recent changes to some categories, correction factors are used:
- 1,5. They are applied to citizens who have been exposed to radiation during actions to eliminate the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster (the exception is military personnel);
- 2.0. Employment in leper colony or other institutions for combating dangerous epidemics is taken into account. Under this coefficient are military service.
- 3.0. For combatants and those being treated and rehabilitated after military injuries.
What periods are not taken into account
Everyone should understand that there are certain time periods that are not considered in the insurance record. These include:
- periods taken into account when assigning a pension in accordance with the laws of another state, however, foreigners can rely on the appointment of an old-age pension if they permanently reside in Russia;
- periods of service before the grant of a disability pension, or labor activity, taken into account when determining the amount of pension payments for long service.
Pension in the absence of insurance experience
Given that a person did not work at all, he is assigned a social old-age pension (if there are no other possible grounds for receiving another type of state pension). This is the statutory minimum amount – a kind of state guarantee. However, the onset of retirement age increases to 65 years for men and 60 for women.
Representatives of small peoples of Siberia and the North who are engaged in natural labor, also receive social benefits, but men are 55 and women are 50 years old. In addition, in the complete absence of the fact of employment with a disabled person or a deceased breadwinner, an appropriate social pension is assigned, the amount of which is indexed in accordance with the order of the Government of Russia.