Science cities and technopolises – innovative cities of Russia and the world
In Russia, there are two types of cities for scientists and researchers: science cities and technopolises. The first are settlements in which the nearby research and production complex plays a large role, the second are cities for engineers, programmers and those involved in IT, telecommunications, alternative energy and other high technologies.
What is a science city and technopolis
Naukograd is an urban area or a separate city in which scientific and industrial enterprises, laboratories and institutes are concentrated. Work on one territory increases their production potential, simplifies the exchange of experience. Professionals living in an environment with advanced infrastructure, better reveal their professional qualities. All this brings dividends to the state in the form of increasing technological competitiveness in the world..
The first science city of Russia is Obninsk. He received such a title in 2001, but had the status of a scientific one even under the USSR: in 1946 a secret laboratory for nuclear physics was created here.
The status of a science city is assigned to a municipality when the following conditions are met:
• On its territory there is a scientific and production complex (NPK).
• Developed and approved a strategy for socio-economic development.
• In the municipality there are organizations that produce high-tech products (at least 50% of the total production).
• NPK employees make up at least 20% of the number of employees of all individual entrepreneurs and organizations operating in the territory.
• Researchers, professors and teachers account for at least 20% of the total number of CDD workers.
Now this status has 13 municipalities in six regions of our country. These are the official science cities of Russia:
• Dubna, Zhukovsky, Korolev, Protvino, Pushchino, Reutov, Fryazino, Chernogolovka, Troitsk, Skolkovo (Moscow and Moscow region)
• Biysk (Altai Territory)
• Koltsovo (Novosibirsk region)
• Obninsk (Kaluga region)
• Michurinsk (Tambov Oblast)
• Innopolis (Tatarstan)
Technopolis is a science city?
Technopolises or innovation cities are innovation centers and technology parks whose participants are involved in projects related to IT. Many of them are not science cities. These are scientific and technological centers where they focus on high technologies, telecommunications, computers, information, energy-efficient and biomedical developments.
Technopolises of Russia
1. Skolkovo (Moscow)
The largest and first technological city in Russia, made following the example of the American Silicon Valley. Here are created special conditions for companies that work in priority economic sectors designated as clusters:
• Nuclear technology
• Information Technology
The center is attended by 2,200 participants, of which 200 received grants for the implementation of projects and the production of their products. In each cluster there are mentors: independent experts, high-level specialists and entrepreneurs of the corresponding industry. Participating organizations gain experience and information support from them..
It is planned that 20,000 people will permanently live in the technological town, and the total number of employees of the local enterprises will be 30,000 (including those coming from Moscow and Moscow Region).
Skolkovo is a prototype of the Russian city of the future. It is designed and built so as not to harm the ecology and the environment. Here, advanced projects are tested, such as an unmanned or flying taxi, electric buses. The main goal is to create an innovative urban environment that is maximally functional for people of the 21st century.
Renting a house in Skolkovo costs 32-277 thousand rubles per month, depending on the quarter and the prestige of the apartment.
2. Innopolis (Tatarstan)
This is the smallest city in Russia by the number of registered residents – 102 people are registered in it. But together with those who rent housing – 3 thousand. Innopolis was built from scratch as the city of the future – with a high-tech infrastructure, green ecology and better conditions for IT workers.
In addition to the university, there is a kindergarten, a comprehensive school and a lyceum. They have their own medical center, a stadium and a recreation area with a ski complex, a golf club and two parks.
Innopolis territory is a special economic zone, the residents and partners of which are X5 Retail Group, Sberbank, Tinkoff Bank, Schneider Electric, Pension Fund of the Russian Federation, MTS, Ak Bars Bank, Yandex, IBM. Residents receive special tax conditions, customs regime, benefits for rental and purchase of housing, assistance in attracting foreign personnel.
The average price tag for renting an apartment in Innopolis is 7-13 thousand rubles per month. The cheapest apartment (41.6 m2) in a house under construction costs about 2.5 million rubles. 72 m apartment2 in a townhouse with a finishing finish – 4 million.
3. The village of programmers (Kirov region)
The programmer community is a bold project by Alexei Konyshev, a former employee of Yandex. In theory, this is a secluded commune in a quiet and environmentally friendly area of the Kirov region for programmers and specialists working on a remote site. The project is only gaining momentum, but has already united several families from different regions of Russia.
Konyshev invested more than 11 million rubles in the creation of infrastructure. The village has electricity, running water, high speed internet. It is planned that half of the territory will be occupied by playgrounds and sports grounds, parks.
2.2 million rubles are needed to join the village. The price includes a plot and a house of 72 m2 with all the communications needed for a comfortable life and remote work. Areas for independent construction are not fundamentally sold.
4. Dobrograd (Vladimir region)
This is the first private technology town in Russia. It was founded by businessman Vladimir Sedov, president of the Ascona company group. Sources of inspiration were the western PlanIT Valley (Portugal) and Celebration (California). The city is completely rebuilt with private funds and is controlled by the management company. Development is carried out according to a concept plan that combines natural parks with residential and business areas, but leaves a lot of free space.
It is planned to create 5,000 jobs for the population of about 35 thousand residents who will move to the technopolis mainly from the Vladimir region. The city has organized recreational infrastructure: sports facilities and zones, a stadium, ponds for recreation and fishing, children’s camps and even a golf course.
One bedroom apartment 60-65 m2 in Dobrograd costs about 2 million rubles.
5. Koltsovo (Novosibirsk region)
Koltsovo is an urban-type settlement in the Novosibirsk Region, founded in 1979, with a population of 16 thousand people. The status of a science city was assigned to him in 2003. The main research and production facility is the Vector and Virology and Biotechnology Center. In particular, the viruses Ebola, Marburg, smallpox, Machupo, Lassa, bird flu, tick-borne encephalitis are studied here..
In 2007, a business incubator for small and medium-sized enterprises was launched in the science city, the construction of the Koltsovo technology park began.
Technopolises of the world
The first technopolises began to appear in America and Europe since the 1950s, where the term “technopark” is more often used in their relation. Some of them were formed by chance, others – at the initiative of the state. The most famous park launched in those years is Silicon Valley in California.
In the 1980s, dozens of university-based technology parks operated in the United States and Great Britain. Similar technopolises began to open in other large European cities and outside the Old World: in Japan, Canada, Australia, Singapore, China, Brazil, India.
Now in the world there are more than 700 technology parks, science cities and innovation cities. About 40% of them are in the USA, 35% in the European Union, 11% in China.
1. Stanford Research Park (California) – the first technology park in the world. It appeared by chance: the management decided to lease land for production and offices, but only to high-tech enterprises, so that it would be easier for students to find work. Now more than 250 thousand people and 8 thousand partner enterprises work there..
2. Silicone (silicon) valley (California). One of the first and most famous technology park in the world. His idea and model became prototypes for Skolkovo. The name is due to the fact that at first the main industry was the semiconductor industry, and the main semiconductor was silicon. Here are the headquarters of Google, Facebook, Adobe, Yahoo !, Intel, eBay, Oracle, Apple and hundreds of other IT corporations.
3. The Triangular Research Park (North Carolina) was founded on the basis of three universities on an area of 2,800 hectares. There are offices of many IT giants, for example, IBM (14,000 employees) and Cisco Systems (5,000).
Technopolises of China
1. Zhongguancun – Chinese Silicon Valley, founded in 1980. The scientific base of the park is the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 200 research institutes, Tsinghua and Beijing universities. The center has branches of IBM, Intel, Nokia, Microsoft.
2. Shenzhen. The status of a free economic zone attracted the attention of transnational corporations and businessmen from neighboring Hong Kong – the city grew rapidly and became an economic center. Here are the headquarters of Huawei, ZTE, TP-Link, Tencent, factories and branches of Samsung, Vantex, British Petroleum, Sanofi, PepsiCo.
3. Zhangjiang – a technology park in Shanghai, specializing in semiconductors, software, information technology and life-science. Here are HP, Lenovo, Intel, Pfizer, GSK, IBM, eBay, Henkel, Haas, SMIC, Sony, Kyocera and others..
Technopolises of Japan
Japan has become one of the countries most inspired by the idea of foreign cities: in 1985, 19 technology parks began to be built right away. The largest of them:
1. Tsukuba – home of the Japan Aerospace Research Agency.
2. Hamamatsu – known for the offices of major manufacturers of vehicles and musical instruments: Honda, Suzuki, Yamaha, Kawai, Roland.
Technopolises of Israel
Technological parks operate in Israel in the cities of Haifa, Petah Tikva, Raanana, Caesarea, but Israel’s Silicon Valley remains the main one. It was formed in part by force, when in the 1960s it was necessary to develop its own military and high-tech industry.
The success is not surprising – the country is in the top three in the number of scientific publications per 1 million inhabitants. Representatives of Motorola, Intel, Microsoft, Qualcomm, Cisco Systems, HP, Phillips, Siemens, eBay, SanDisk, Google, Facebook, Apple, Amazon work in Israel..
Blockchain technology is causing a lot of controversy. Some experts believe that it is overvalued, while others are sure that the future of many industries is precisely behind it.,…
Why does artificial intelligence scare us when people observe technology that behaves like humans and computers that process…
In a world undergoing the fourth industrial revolution, much becomes automatic. There are robots that work in factories and simplify…