- Preparation for installation, tools, lathing
- Installation of wedge-shaped shingles
- Longitudinal wedge
- Cross wedge or tongue
- Installation of shingles
- A little about fasteners. Important little things
- Calculation of material for a wooden roof
- Calculation of the number of plates
- Calculating the amount of forest
In this article you will find step-by-step instructions for self-assembly of a wooden roof with explanations. We will tell you how to create different types of wooden roofing, voice the rules, requirements and nuances. The article also provides tips for working with fasteners and explains how to calculate the material.
In the previous article, we talked about different types of wooden roofs, now we will consider the features of their installation.
Preparation for installation, tools, lathing
To work, you will need a regular carpenter’s set:
- Control and measuring – tape measure, pencil, cord.
- Manual – hammer or stapler, hacksaw, ax.
- Power tool – saw or jigsaw.
The crate serves as the basis for the piece roofing made of shingles and shingles. Requirements for the crate:
- Material – dry timber 50×50 mm (in the original version – poles, planed on both sides).
- The pitch of the rafters or counter-battens – no more than 600 mm.
- Lathing step – with a 4-layer cake 1/2 of the plate length, with a 6-layer 1/3 of the length.
- Lathing fasteners – self-tapping screws.
Installation of wedge-shaped shingles
As you learned from the previous article, shingles are wedge-shaped along the longitudinal and transverse edges. Accordingly, its flooring is somewhat different. Here, rigid stainless steel fasteners with a pin length of at least 35 mm are used. It is easier and cheaper to use nails. Self-tapping screws will not allow the tree to move with natural saturation and shrinkage.
- Check the geometry of the roof with a rope, fit the grooves of the valleys and fasten the starter rope along the roof overhang.
- The roof is installed from left to right and from below up. Place the first plate at the lower left point along the cord and fasten with nails at a distance of 1/3 from the outer (visible) edge. In this case, in the lower part there will be an untouched end.
- The adjacent plate is placed close to the previous one and fixed with nails – this is how the entire row goes.
- The next row overlaps 2/3 of the plate in height.
Installation of shingles on video
Cross wedge or tongue
Installation is carried out in the same way, but with a nuance – the start of laying the grooved shingle is determined based on the habits of the master (taking into account the working hand). It should be convenient for him to fit the plates into the grooves.
Installation of shingles
The principle of stacking shingle layers is similar to shingles or shingles. However, it is much simpler because no adjustment necessary. There are only a few rules specific to this work:
- Plate size tolerance – 50 mm.
- When laying, the folded edges of the plate should “look” at the base.
- Slope overlap (vertical) – 2/3 of the plate (i.e. 2/3 of the previous plate should be overlapped by the next). Overlap across the slope (horizontal) – 1/3 of the plate.
- The fasteners must be completely covered by the next plate.
- The plate of each subsequent layer should cover the maximum number of joints.
- The minimum number of layers is 4.
The first year after installation, the roof will change its appearance and bulge. This is normal – after passing through the cycle of seasons, the shingles will take a “comfortable” position and caked into a crust with hidden internal vents and channels for condensate.
A little about fasteners. Important little things
Wooden buildings and roofs have been used since the invention of the ax and nails – hundreds of years. In ancient times, the service life of such a roof was no more than 15–20 years. This is due to the fact that nails made of ordinary steel began to oxidize, the place of fasteners rotted and weakened – the roof became unusable.
Today this problem is solved with galvanized stainless steel fasteners. Only thanks to their introduction, the wooden roof began to serve for 10-15 years longer, that is, almost twice.
You need to know the following about fasteners for a wooden sheet roof:
- Do not use self-tapping screws. By pressing the plate against the base, they prevent it and the whole cake from changing volume in a natural way. This is unacceptable on this type of roof and leads to splits and pushing through the fastener.
- When using galvanized nails, do not drive them “tightly”. The pressure should be natural, without deformation of the tree.
- For large volumes of work with shingles of 3-5 mm, a powerful furniture stapler is best suited – gas, pneumatic or electric.
- Sufficient length of the bolt head – 35-40 mm.
Calculation of material for a wooden roof
Suppose the task is to cover the roof slopes with an area of 48 m with 3-5 mm shingles2 in 6 layers. Estimated plate size 150×400 mm.
Calculation of the number of plates
Net area of the plate: Spl = 0.15 x 0.4 = 0.06 m2
Dimensions of the edges of the working area of the plate (a and b minus the overlapped areas 1/3 of a and 2/3 of b):
- ANDslave = a – 1 / 3a = 0.15 – 0.15 / 3 = 0.15 – 0.05 = 0.1 m
- Bslave = b – 2 / 3b = 0.4 – 0.4 / 3 x 2 = 0.4 – 0.13 x 2 = 0.14 m
Working area of the plate: Sslave = aslave x bslave = 0.1 x 0.14 = 0.014 m2
Number of plates per 1 m2: N = 1 / 0.014 = 71.42, we take 70 pieces.
Number of plates per 1 m2 in 6 layers: N6 = N x 6 = 70 x 6 = 420 pcs.
The number of plates for the entire roof (48 m2): Ntotal = N6 x 48 = 420 x 48 = 20 160 pcs., we accept 20 000.
Calculating the amount of forest
Average shingle thickness: h1 = (3 + 5) / 2 = 4 mm
The average trunk diameter for shingles with a width of 150 mm is usually 200–250 mm. Approximate number of plates from one log L1pol = 400 mm:
- Nlayer = (200/4) – 25% = 50 – 25% = 37.5 pieces, we take 35
Number of logs 400 mm long:
- Nfloor = Ntotal / Nlayer = 20,000/35 = 571, we accept 570 pieces.
Total length of the scaffold O 200-250 mm:
- Ltotal = Nfloor x L1 floor = 570 x 0.4 = 228 lin. m
With an average length of a suitable trunk of 6 m, the number of trunks will be equal to:
- Ntrunks = Ltotal / 6 = 228/6 = 38 pcs.
Wood volume with an average diameter of 220 mm:
- V = Pr2 x L = 3.14 x 0.112 x 228 = 8.66 m3
Even taking into account modern progress, timber roofing creates quite tangible competition for multi-layer frame roofing. The only drawback is the use of a natural resource that takes a long time to replenish. But it can be overcome with a competent distribution of felling and planting..