When you come to any building hypermarket and see there a lot of containers with ready-made putty and bags with dry mix, you must answer the first and most important question for yourself – where exactly are you going to use it. This is a very important criterion, which cannot be forgotten..
There are two main types of putty:
- putties for interior work – exclusively for leveling surfaces in rooms;
- for external work, such putties are more resistant to external influences.
Important! It is better not to use putties intended for outdoor use inside the house, as they may contain various additives that increase resistance to sunlight and temperature changes, but are toxic to humans.
There are universal compositions of putty for both external and internal work, but often they lose to specialized.
Note that you should also be prepared for the fact that you will need to buy two types of putty to work on the same wall – basic and finishing. Let’s deal with this classification:
- for primary surface preparation are intended starter or basic putties– they are applied in the first layer. They usually require much more, the layer is thicker, most often they are sold dry and are slightly cheaper;
- finishing putties. With their help, the final leveling of the surfaces is carried out, after applying a thin layer of finishing putty – no more than one millimeter – you can already use paint or glue wallpaper on a flat wall.
Important! Be sure to pay attention to specialized putties that have a narrow focus. For example, compounds for wet rooms, that is, moisture-resistant, antifungal, anti-corrosion, for floors, for sealing joints, and so on. Thanks to this specialization and the special composition of the putty, they are much better at coping with the task than universal.
Putties are also divided according to the main component, on the basis of which they are created:
- Gypsum. Putties, which are created on the basis of gypsum, are distinguished by their plasticity and perfectly white color. Gypsum can absorb moisture from the air and then release it, so the use of gypsum putties helps to improve the microclimate in the room..
- Cement. This is a more durable type of putty, they can be used both inside the building and outside. Most often, cement-based putties are used on brick and concrete surfaces, as well as in rooms with high humidity..
- Polymer. They are divided into two groups – latex and acrylic. Latex are used exclusively indoors, but acrylic can also be used on facades, for roughing and finishing surfaces. In addition, polymer putties are often used for sealing seams, joints, cracks.
- Adhesive. They contain a 10% glue solution, the composition also includes chalk, drying oil. These fillers are very easy to apply to the surface and have a good strength index..
- Oil. They include chalk, natural drying oil and driers (auxiliary substances that accelerate the drying process). Despite the presence of desiccants, the oil putty dries relatively slowly, but it is characterized by increased strength. This type of putty is used to prepare slopes, window sashes, window sills, floors, and other surfaces where moisture is not excluded..
- Oil-adhesive. Designed for interior work, contain plasticizers, water, acrylates, drying oil. Suitable for concrete, wood and pre-plastered surfaces.
Separately, it is necessary to highlight the spacril. It is a putty that is used for leveling plastered surfaces, sealing skirting boards and laying ceramic tiles in dry conditions. If you dilute the plaster with water, you get a solution that is suitable for whitewashing ceilings and walls with a brush..
Dry and ready-made putty has advantages and disadvantages:
- Dry mixcan be diluted to a consistency convenient for you, mixing with a construction mixer, a perforator and a drill with a special attachment. Plus, it keeps longer and keeps better. However, if you store the dry mixture indoors, where it is exposed to moisture, it will definitely deteriorate. The disadvantages of dry putty include additional efforts that will have to be made to mix the mixture. The composition should be made in small portions so that it does not have time to dry out. Most often, dry cement and gypsum putties are sold;
- Ready putties. Sold in plastic buckets or tanks. It is convenient that the composition is immediately ready to be applied to the surface, in addition, usually such putties are more plastic. However, ready-made compositions most often belong to finishing and cannot be applied with a layer thicker than 5 millimeters. Another disadvantage is a higher cost than dry formulations. Ready putties are kept tightly closed, they are afraid of low temperatures. Latex and acrylic fillers are usually sold in buckets and tanks..
We state: when choosing a putty, first of all, you should focus on its purpose. If you plan to improve the facade – you need a composition for external work, for a bathroom – moisture resistant, gypsum for internal work is suitable for wallpaper in the living room.
In addition, it is imperative to take into account the surface material, because there are putties specifically for processing wood, metal, stone. Subsequent finishing is also important. For example, there are putties that are intended for the subsequent application of a specific type of paint..
We wrote in detail about the most popular brands of putty manufacturers and the price range of compositions.
As for the very process of leveling surfaces with a putty, the main tool is a spatula. Professionals usually use two – wide and narrower. Two more important points – before applying the putty, the surface should be primed and then sanded to get an ideal base for painting or wallpapering.