How to choose a water purification system

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Many probably remember the Russian folk tale about sister Alyonushka and brother Ivanushka, in which our ancestors lucidly and eloquently told about the importance of clean drinking water. More than a dozen years and even decades have passed, and young parents still tell their children that drinking dirty water is dangerous: you will become a kid.

How to choose a water purification system

In order to protect themselves and their families from all kinds of transformations, citizens often install various water treatment systems at their homes, without thinking that it is necessary to analyze the water before purchasing equipment..

It happens that the water after filtration becomes even worse than before cleaning, and the reason for this is the wrong equipment. In particular, consumers buy filters for softening, assuming that their water is hard, but in fact, too soft water flushes useful minerals and organic substances from the body, leading to rickets. To avoid this kind of opuses and waste of money, you should do a water analysis.

Today, the analysis of drinking, natural and waste water can be ordered in specialized laboratories. Within 1-2 days, analytical chemists will determine why your water is unusable. It is best to do a complete bacteriological and chemical analysis of water, because only in this case it is possible to judge the quality of water, as well as the need to install water purification systems.

Drinking water analysis

Based on the data obtained during the research, you can purchase exactly the filter that will purify the water from the detected pollutants.

Impurities contained in water can be conditionally divided into several groups: unnecessary, mechanical and harmful.

The most dangerous impurities for living organisms are nitrates, phosphates, pesticides, pathogens and heavy metals. Here are just some of the diseases that can be caused by polluted water: allergies, boric psoriasis, cretinism, anemia, gout, cancer, fluorosis.

Excess impurities include iron, hydrogen sulfide, metal salts, manganese and other substances that promote corrosive processes. Well, and the sources of mechanical impurities are rust, sand, clay and scale.

An important step in any water analysis is the determination of the organoleptic properties of water, i.e. consumer qualities – color, taste, smell, turbidity and temperature. Good organoleptic properties of water have a positive effect on human health, and an unpleasant odor, sediment, alkaline or other taste are the first signs of contaminated water.

Water purification methods

In order to purify water, you should strictly follow the recommendations that you receive in the laboratory, because often, to eliminate all impurities, it is necessary to use several purification methods at once.

Today, the most accessible water purification methods are: clarification, adsorption, deferrization, oxidation based on chemical reagents, softening, desalting, disinfection, conditioning, dechlorination, removal of organic contaminants and nitrates..

The following are ways to remove the most common pollutants from water.

Type of pollution Cleaning methods
iron ions, manganese
  • aeration – enrichment of water with atmospheric oxygen;
  • the addition of special oxidants (chlorine, ozone), stronger oxidants are used for manganese ions;
  • filtration through modified loading – destruction of iron and sediments by passing special materials
microparticles, coarse particles, colloids, suspensions
  • settling water;
  • coagulation – an increase in the size of polluting particles for their further sedimentation;
  • filtration with dolomite, activated carbon, quartz sand
increased content of calcium and magnesium salts
  • boiling;
  • electrodialysis – a decrease in the amount of electrolyte under the action of an electric voltage;
  • cationization – softening and demineralization of water by ion-exchange filters that replace calcium and magnesium with sodium and hydrogen;
  • reverse osmosis – the passage of water through a membrane from a solution with a more concentrated raster to a less concentrated one
increased acidity filtration with dolomite or granular calcium carbonate
salts, microorganisms, organic compounds reverse osmosis
microorganisms, bacteria, viruses
  • chlorination;
  • ozonation;
  • irradiation of water with ultraviolet light
change in organoleptic properties sorption on activated carbon – binding of particles at the molecular level

Water purification systems for apartments

Despite the fact that the water supplied to city apartments is treated at water supply stations, it still contains impurities that can be harmful to health. The main water pollutants in the city water supply system remain insoluble mixtures, pesticides, oil products, phenols, metal salts and chlorine. Therefore, taking into account the indicators of water analysis, consumption volumes, as well as financial possibilities, it is necessary to choose exactly the treatment system that most effectively cope with sources of pollution..

Let’s dwell in more detail on some types of purification systems, which are more expedient to use in the city..

Filter jugs

Recommended for final water purification. The advantages of this purification equipment, the main filtering component of which is activated carbon, are considered to be ease of operation, compactness, mobility and low cost; disadvantages are the quality of water purification and filtration rate..

Filter jugs

The Geyser company offers consumers several types of filter jugs with a 5-level cleaning system: bactericidal, universal, for hard and ferrous water. The cost of these filters varies from 175 to 359 rubles.

Filter jugs of the Aquaphor company promise to protect against chlorine, bacteria and organic compounds for only 360 – 560 rubles.

The jugs produced by the Barrier company cost approximately 249 – 699 rubles. They are distinguished by a wide model range, color variety, in addition, “Barrier” produces filter jugs with electronic indicators.

Dispensers

A household water purifier of the accumulative dispenser type is similar in principle to the filter-jug. The only difference between a dispenser and a jug is the volume of the container..

Dispensers

There is a wide range of desktop dispensers on the market. So, a 1.5-liter water dispenser costs about 1.6 thousand rubles, and if it is equipped with a water heating and cooling system, an electronic display or a mini-aquarium, then the price rises to 5 thousand rubles.

Multistage systems

The next type of cleaning equipment for apartments is multistage systems “for washing”.

Classic multistage filters “under the sink” are several filter cartridges, permanently connected to the water supply, with a separate tap for clean water. These filters purify water from mechanical impurities, pesticides, heavy metals and oil products.

Multistage water treatment systems

2-stage filters “for washing” of the Novaya Voda company cost 1.99 – 2.27 thousand rubles, 3-stage filters “Geyser” – from 2.6 thousand rubles.

When buying a cleaning system for the home, the main thing is to decide what you want to get from the filter: water purified from large impurities, which will not spoil household appliances, or clean drinking water, which can be consumed even by babies.

Carbon filters

The operation of carbon filters, capable of removing organic impurities and chlorine, which give water an unpleasant taste and smell, is based on the principle of adsorption (preventing contaminants from entering the water by retaining them by the outer surface of the solid). The main component of such filters is activated carbon, which, due to its large surface area, provides good filtration..

Filter charcoal is made from coconut shells, the advantage of which is high abrasion resistance, which allows you to use one filter for about a year. The main disadvantage of carbon filters is the size – 860 × 340 × 260 mm.

The cheapest carbon filter with a capacity of 1.4 m3 per hour costs 25 thousand rubles.

Mechanical filters

These are the simplest strainers available at any plumbing store. Mechanical filters are installed in the pipeline, they purify water from suspended impurities. These cleaning systems prevent the ingress of solid particles into taps, valves of household appliances, meters. The most acceptable mechanical filter for an apartment is considered to be a magneto-mechanical filter, inside which there is a magnet that can trap metal particles.

The minimum price for mechanical filters of the Honeywell brand is 1.9 thousand rubles, for Aquaboss filters – 1.97 thousand rubles.

Water purification systems for cottages

It is a mistake to assume that water from a deep well is of the highest quality. Chemical analysis will show that natural water contains dissolved iron, hydrogen sulfide, manganese, and a number of biological pollutants..

Water purification systems for cottages

Water purification from a well consists of a whole range of measures, since for the use of natural water for domestic purposes it must be softened, clarified, and salts and iron, gases, chlorine, ammonia removed from it.

The design of the water treatment and filtration system must be carried out on the basis of chemical analysis and the volume of water consumption (the average nominal volume of a country cottage is 1.2 – 1.9 m3 in hour ).

An optimal well water purification system consists of 4 stages:

  1. Aeration – oxidation of impurities and removal of gases;
  2. Disinfection and catalytic clarification – reagent-free removal of hydrogen sulfide, iron, manganese, etc .;
  3. Hardness stabilization – water softening;
  4. Water purification by microfiltration or ultrafiltration.

Often the question arises before consumers: what kind of water purification system – reagent or non-reagent – to choose for a country cottage. It should be noted right away that each purification system has its own advantages, however, one should dwell on the one that is more effective in dealing with the destruction of impurities found during chemical analysis..

Reagent cleaning

The essence of reagent water purification is to add to the liquid a certain amount of reagents that enter into a chemical reaction with impurities, resulting in the formation of an insoluble precipitate or foam. Reagents can be flocculants, inhibitors or coagulants, it depends on what you want to remove from the water: iron, manganese or hydrogen sulfide.

The disadvantages of a reagent water purification system are seasonal fluctuations in the volume of pollutants (the amount of reagents is dosed in a given volume), and the harmfulness of reagents (it is necessary to store reagents in a safe place).

Reagent-free cleaning

The reagent-free system purifies water without chemicals and is certainly more modern technology. This system saturates the water with oxygen through aeration, as a result of which the iron reacts with manganese oxide. At the end of the reaction, iron is precipitated by crystals, and manganese is returned to the catalytic bed. As a result, the consumer receives purified water.

UV cleaning

Another method of wastewater treatment is water disinfection with ultraviolet light, which kills pathogens by affecting the enzyme system and cellular metabolism of harmful cells with ultraviolet rays..

Ultraviolet water treatment

Water purification by ultraviolet light occurs without chemical reagents, in addition, ultraviolet light does not affect the organoleptic properties of water.

Low operating costs and high environmental friendliness makes UV disinfection the most efficient wastewater treatment system.

Installation of a water purification system includes the delivery of selected equipment, installation of a filtration system, connection of filters to utility networks, launching the system.

Designing a water purification system will cost a resident of Moscow 15 thousand rubles, installation of filtration equipment “turnkey” – at least 40 thousand rubles. The cost of calling a specialist for service is 3.5 thousand rubles, prices for servicing reagent-free and reagent filters start from 900 and 3.5 thousand rubles, respectively, maintenance of aeration systems – from 450 rubles.

If the cost of installing a water purification system seemed to you high, then remember that dirty water can kill, and purified water prolongs life, protecting human cells from the negative effects of the environment. Therefore, you should not save on your own health, drink purified water!

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